Alcohol Abuse

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Last week I went to the bar with a bunch of my friends. It was a Thursday night and the bar is pretty popular so there were a lot of people there, and almost all of them were from my school. Needless to say I had a few too many drinks, and ended up thinking I was superman (like most of us do after a few drinks). am and last call came pretty quick, and everyone piled out into the streets. It was about this time that one of my friends thought it would be funny to take advantage of my state of mind, or lack there of, and dare me to take a swim in the pond that was just across the street from the bar. He said he would give me $50 and 5 CDs of my choice if I would swim out to the middle of the pond and back. You have to admit thats not a bad deal, right? So without thinking of the 0-degree weather I stripped down to my boxers in front of half the school and jumped into this pond. Well, I made it to the middle of the pond and about half way back before my muscles started to cramp up from the cold and the alcohol. I thought the last 0 feet of swimming was going to be the most pain I would ever feel in my life. That thought was quickly dismissed when I got to shore, stood up, and realized that every person that was there that night was standing by the pond laughing like crazy at me. Lets just say the boxers I was wearing that night didnt have a button. I still have not seen that $50 or those 5 CDs, and to top is all off you should try getting a date when all the girls in your college think you little buddy is really that small. Ladies, it was just shrinkage…….IT WAS 0-DEGREES FOR CRYING OUT LOUD.





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Gray Chemical Company

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SUBJECT Gray Chemical Company


Engagement Issues and Conclusions


Facts Gray Chemical Co. manufactured pesticides that were hazardous to the environment. Over a period of time, the toxic chemicals contaminated the land and water around the company’s plant. The EPA cited Gray for violations in the year 000. The court found Gray Co. guilty of violating EPA standards and fined them $15 million dollars. The court also ordered the company to cleanup the land and set up equipment to monitor water quality. In 00, Gray incurred legal expenses of $8 million along with $ million to remove and dispose of the contaminated soil, and another $1.5 million to buy and install water quality monitoring equipment. The equipment cost $0,000 to run during 00.


Issues (1) Which of the costs, if any, are deductible in 00?


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() What happens to the costs that are not deductible?


Authority Section 16 (a) of the Internal Revenue Code allows a deduction for all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business. However, Section 6 (a) of the Code provides that “no deduction shall be allowed for any amount paid out for permanent improvements or betterments made to increase the value of any property or estate, or for any amounts expended in restoring property.”


Section 16 (f) discusses fines and penalties. It declares that no deduction shall be allowed for any fine or similar penalty paid to a government for the violation of the law. According to Reg. 1.16-1 (b) (), compensatory damages paid to a government do not constitute a fine and the amount of the fine does not include legal fees.


Section 1.16-4 of the Income Tax Regulations specifically allows a deduction for a repair cost only if all of the following conditions are met 1) the repair is incidental; ) the cost of the repair does not materially add to value of the property; ) the repair does not appreciably prolong the useful life of the property; 4) the purpose of the expenditure is to keep the property in ordinarily efficient operating condition.


Kelly v. Commissioner, T.C. 68 (155). The deductibility of legal fees and related expenses is determined from the character of the suit in connection. Legal expenses paid in connection with litigation are deductible as business expenses under Section 16 where the legal proceeding threatens the safety of the taxpayer’s business.


Conclusions (1) The legal fees are deductible to the extent that they were incurred to defend taxpayer’s business or secure contractual rights. The cost of running the water monitoring equipment is deductible as well, simply as an ordinary and necessary business expense. The $ million to remove and dispose of the contaminated soil can be deducted because it kept the property in ordinarily efficient condition. Therefore, the total deductible expenses are $10. million.


() The $1.5 million to buy and install water quality monitoring equipment is not deductible. It should be treated as a capital expenditure. The extensive modifications to taxpayer’s property under the cleanup constitute replacements and betterments, and not repairs. The water equipment adds value and useful life and does not qualify under Section 1.16-4 of the Tax Regulations. The $15 million fine was not for compensatory damages and therefore is not deductible either.





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Four Idols

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Humanity is undeniably flawed and we are flawed in everything we do. Nobody is perfect. But with each understanding of these flaws, we can strive to correct our errors and become better people. Sir Francis Bacon wrote about his theory that we have four main flaws that cause our misconceptions about reality. These are the four idols; Idols of the Tribe, Idols of the Cave, Idols of the Marketplace, and Idols of the Theater. He brings strong points to prove his theory about each flaw and they also relate forward to the modern world.


In his essay “The Four Idols,” Sir Francis Bacon makes a claim that human discrepancies in understanding comes from four unconscious idols and by understanding these idols, we can more easily avoid them. His first idol, the idol of the tribes, describes human nature and its flaws. Human nature in general tends to coat everything in a different color, for instance, once an opinion makes sense based on a few facts and fictions, all contradicting facts are thrown out to make the opinion more logical. The second idol refers to the individual flaws because man has the tendency to see the world in his own light. This is the idols of the cave. In the idols of the marketplace, men misunderstand each other due to different interpretations of words. There are two kinds of words that are often misunderstood; These are names of things that don’t exist, and names of things that do exist but are easily confusable names. And the last idol is the idol that people accept ideas of the elite intellectual group of society, even if they are wrong. This idols of the tribe is based on the fact that this intellectual group takes few samples when they do their experiments and they craft it so that results lead people to believe what they shape them to believe.


The human understanding, as Bacon states, is restless and never-ending. He says that “when it has once adopted an opinion (either as the received opinion or as being agreeable to itself) draws all things else to support and agree with it.” (Bacon 4) This strongly supports his idol of the tribe by supporting the restlessness of the human intrigue. We also put too much trust in our senses, which often betray us. We often do not believe anything until we see it; And until we see it we do not bother even trying to look for it, even if it is there. This also applies to the modern age, because even today, this is how we all think and argue. And it happens so fast that we don’t even know we did it, which makes it much harder to avoid this idol.


In man’s individual idol, he sees things with narrow vision, much like look out on the world from deep within a cave. Bacon supports this by saying that Heraclitus observed “that men look for sciences in their own lesser worlds, and not in the greater common world.” (Bacon 41) He mentions an example of Aristotle and how he made his attachment to natural philosophy “a mere bondservant to his logic, thereby rendering it contentions and well nigh useless.” (Bacon 45) Further proving his point, Bacon details the plight of Leucippus and Democritus and how one was “so busied with particles that it hardly tends to the structure; while the others are so lost in admiration of the structure that they do not penetrate to the simplicity of nature.” (Bacon 46) Leucippus and Democritus both studied particles with a narrow view, while a broader view could have “rendered at once penetrating and comprehensive.” (Bacon 46) It is often narrow views such as this that lead to the racism and prejudice that still exists today. It is due to this idol that we will never be rid of crime, prejudice or racism because it is all a part of the human understanding.


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It is easily confusable the intended meaning of conversation between two men. There are two main categories in which ideas fail to exchange When they name things that do not exist, or when they name things that exist with bad and confusable names. Examples of these kinds of words are “fortune, the prime mover, planetary orbits, elements of fire, and like fictions which owe their origin to false and idle theories.” (Bacon 47) These kinds of words are not seen with eyes but their concept are put into words that are defined differently by each individual. It is for these reasons that “the ill and unfit choice of words wonderfully obstruct the understanding.” (Bacon 41) In the modern world, we still use these “fictional words” such as luck, heavy, dense and religious words to define a Prime Mover. We still interpret them all in different ways. Those being watched, such as celebrities must always be careful what they say, making sure that their words are not confused with another meaning that could ruin their reputation.


In a world with so much information discovered, and information to be discovered, the general population does not keep up with every bit of data available. It is for this reason that the general public often accepts ideas of elite intellectual groups of society because they are credible. It is for this reason that Bacon insists that for the most part intellectual groups often wield information to bend the truth to their vision and so seduces the public into their false theories. Often the elite take advantage of this which leads Bacon to believe that “all the received systems are but so many stage-plays, representing worlds of their own creation after an unreal and scenic fashion.” (Bacon 41) His strong arguing point is that “there is taken for the material of philosophy either a great deal out of a few things, or a very little out of many things.” (Bacon 40) It’s a good point to prove that these scientists often take too much data from a small group of information, and too little data out of a broad range. Statistically, with this information, you can conclude anything and make it seem logical. Even today, this idol still exists with product marketers trying to sell you things with false claims and invalid statistics. Sometimes the claims are so convincing you can’t help but try it, and when you do you realize it is falsifying sham.


In conclusion, Sir Francis Bacon makes strong arguments for his essay about the Four Idols. Each idol has a strong claim, example, and still applies to this modern day. The first idol of the tribe, concludes that human nature creates problems to solve and never stops processing until the problem is solved. The human individual at one point or another, has narrow views about certain topics due individual feelings and morals, as stated in the second idol of the cave. From the idol of the marketplace, we see that man often misunderstand each other due to certain words that have no definite meaning. The last idol of the theater is about the general publics susceptibility to the ideas of elite and intellectual people, due to their credibility. These idols spawn from the imperfections of mankind and will always stick with mankind unavoidably, but with the identification of the idols, we can learn to reduce the occurrences of these idols.





Works Cited


Bacon, Francis. “The Four Idols,” A World of Ideas, 41- 40.





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Sex & Violence in the MediaIn today’s day of age many parents, political leaders, and authority figures use the argument of Sex & Violence in entertainment as an excuse for their irresponsibility and delinquency in rising today’s youth.

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In today’s day of age many parents, political leaders, and authority figures use the argument of Sex & Violence in entertainment as an excuse for their irresponsibility and delinquency in rising today’s youth. This idea of the entertainment industry infecting the youth with immoral, wrong, and criminal ideas has been an issue for quite some time now. Many believe that artists and idol influences should maintain a proper educate in their art. Others believe that a common structure or reality should be enforced by the children’s parental figures having the youth understand that entertainment is merely entertainment.


In my paper I will explain, show, and argue the matter at hand from both sides of the spectrum! Giving examples and real life documented incidents. Adding commentaries from professionals within the industry and parents along with other conservationists. I hope to add examples from artists such as Eminem, Marylin Manson, Korn, Blink 18, and movies such as Basketball Diaries, Juice, New Jack City, and many more. In conjunction with for and opposing arguments I hope to get quotes and interviews with government figures on the matter.


I will review all material thoroughly making sure I quote and state accurate information that is very vital to the ideas expressed by both sides. Material used in my bibliography will include movies, music, newspaper articles, books, judicial cases, and many more. Internet sites will also be utilized through College of Dupage’s library. I hope to collaborate all these ideas and materials so construct a very enlightening and interesting paper.





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MAx Dupain

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Three people whom I highly admire Max Dupain, Jeffrey Smart and Salvador Dali. All three excel in their field of art and put heart and soul into their creations. I think a piece of artwork can be two things. One, it can be created on the basis of money or necessity, nothing is reflected about the artist in these forms of creations. On the other hand an artist can create art for just that reason, to create art. I feel these types of art give a look into the inner workings of the artist that created the piece, they are original windows to the soul of the artist.


Art can be controversial, beautiful, induce anger, fear, belief, motivation; because everyone can find a part of themselves in art. Whether this be movies, pictures, photos, drawings, dance, acting or well, anything really. I like art that is bold, subtle, dramatic, personal, but most of all I like art that is different.


Max Dupain � An Australian photographer. Probably his best known piece “Sunbaker”, is said to be an image that represents Australian identity.





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About Max Dupain Born in 11, died 1. Dupain established his first studio in 14 in Sydney. In 141 he entered a partnership with the photo engraving firm of Hartland and Hyde. Dupain went to war, then photographed Australia for the Department of Information, so next time you are at an old info booth and look at a flyer, it could be Dupains photo of lake Eyre or Luna park.


Salvador Dali, the ever surprising, ever changing artist, whose work can be looked at, like his life, to develop with time. Dali started off painting Impressionist work, employing impressionist techniques taught to him by his fathers close friend, and celebrated impressionist painter Ramon Pichot. Dali had no boundaries, he had a genius mind. Anything and everything could be his art form.


Ship (Trading Brig Drops Anchor in the Bay of Cadaqu�s) 11, Oil on Canvas.


This painting shows the lively shimmering brushwork that indicates Dali’s obsession with impressionism. Dali smears the oil paint on thick in short repetitive strokes, which creates texture. The short yellow scattered strokes amongst the blue water gives the illusion of





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Angelas Ashes opinion essay

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Dr. ______ Rich M


ED 0


Angela’s Ashes


Angela’s Ashes, by Frank McCort, was written in the 10’s but reflects


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life in Ireland during the Depression. Frank McCort, the novel’s protagonist, was fortunate to be born in America, but his family faced many difficulties due to the economic crisis and ultimately decided to find support back in Ireland. What they found in their homeland, instead of help, was more economic struggles and many families in the same desperate situation with limited room for living, scarce amounts of food, and hardly any money. It was hard for the McCorts to raise their children as Irish Catholics because they were often subjected to the stereotype with the drunken father, emotionally wrecked mother, and kids running around that haven’t been bathed in weeks. Angela’s Ashes portrays a typical lifestyle of a lower class family living in Ireland during the late 10’s and early 140’s.


One of the many problems the McCort family experienced was often the lack of money. Frank’s father would often drink away the dole money shortly after receiving his paycheck. Malachy McCort’s actions kept his family living in poverty. The deaths of his three-year-old twin sons and his infant daughter due to illness (that could have been prevented with ordinary medications), and because he liked to drink anyway lead him to the pubs of Limerick to release his anger and dull his pain. I think his alcoholism angered me the most in this book. Poverty in any circumstance is a sad thing, but seeing the supposed head of the household squander away the little earnings he makes is disgusting. I know that alcoholism is a disease, but he doesn’t even seem to try and fight it. Because of his father’s lack of responsibility, Frank had to work as a telegram boy, giving part of his earnings to his family and saving the rest of it to move to America again someday. He also found a job delivering coal with Mr. Hannon, his next door neighbor. The labor makes Frank feel like he is a man and is often the envy of the boys in his class. He comes to admire Mr. Hannon and wishes he were his father instead of Malachy. Frank did not want to follow in his fathers footsteps because of the burdens he often put upon his son’s shoulders. Frank’s self awareness of his father is uplifting to me because there are so many children of alcoholics, abusers or criminals that end up just like their parents. The fact that Frank realizes that his father is pretty much useless shows that he will make a conscious effort to change his future (which is obvious when you look at his life currently). What I will never understand is how Frank remained loyal to his father. No matter how drunk his father was or how irresponsible, he would always cherish the time that he and his father spent together, either drinking tea or hearing his father’s stories. If I was in his shoes and it were my father who was making my family’s economic situation even worse, I would disassociate myself from him as much as possible. Hanging out with him and giving him my time would subconsciously tell him that even though I may verbally disapprove of his money squandering, I have forgiven him, because if I hadn’t forgiven him I wouldn’t be talking to him. I guess since I was not in his situation I will never fully understand his situation, but that is how I feel.


His father was never home and very rarely did he have a stable job. When Malachy finally found a new job in a factory, he was fired shortly after because he got drunk and missed work one day After payday on Friday (when he was lucky enough to have a payday), Malachy was often found at the pubs drinking all the money away that he just earned. His habits after visiting the pubs was to come home roaring and heavily intoxicated, demanding that his sons die for Ireland, were confusing to his children on what to believe in. It was a time when Catholicism prevailed and faith came before everything. Frank’s teachers and the Catholic priests often taught that it was an honor to die for one’s faith. His father said is an honor to die for their country, Ireland. “The master says it’s a glorious thing to die for Faith and Dad says it’s a glorious thing to die for Ireland and I wonder if there’s anyone in the world who would like us to live” (11). This was a profound statement of Frank’s that stuck out in my head. Hearing this from his father and from the priests, and seeing his brothers and baby sister die, it’s a wonder that Frank never gave up hope. Being such a young boy and not only hearing about “glorious death,” but also experiencing it firsthand, combined with their living and economic situations, one has to wonder what their willpower was to forge on and survive their extreme poverty. But Frank fought to live, he got not one but two jobs, and struggled to get even the smallest amount for his family. Not only is that admirable, but is shows that he had a strong will for life; life for his whole family, not just himself.


The actions of Frank’s father places on himself affect the entire family. The McCorts lived an old, unkempt house in the slums of Limerick. They moved several times with each house more uninhabitable than the last. In one of the houses, Frank and his brothers liked to call the upstairs Italy and the downstairs Ireland. Because it was relatively dry on the top floor, the boys enjoyed spending most of their indoor time playing up in Italy. The downstairs was called Ireland because it was often flooded due of the amount of rain Ireland receives. Around dinnertime, they would wait for their father to bring home the money he earned working so Angela could go and buy more than bread and tea. The boys know it is an empty hope because they knew their father would rather spend his earnings on alcohol than supporting the family. The plague of hunger took over Frank’s entire family. The McCorts never had enough food to eat and often had to borrow some bread and water from neighbors or Angela’s sister or mother. Hunger is mentioned over and over again in the memoir until it becomes a major underlying theme of the book. That was the most disheartening part of the book, the fact that hunger played such a prevalent role in his life. I know that no one wants to be poor, but even within the poor class there are sub-classes. Some poor people can afford a sufficient amount of food, but not much else. The McCourt family may have been this type of poor if only Frank’s father wasn’t such a drunk, because I think that they would have at the very least had enough food for the family if he was able to hold that job in the factory. Spending your pay on booze is bad enough, but I think that when innocent lives are at stake, even an alcoholic I would like to think could put aside some money for his family. It becomes relevant from the very beginning that everywhere Frank looks, hunger is right there in his face. The hunger is almost like an extra gene that he inherited from one his parents.


Angela’s Ashes was a very moving book. It not only made me very grateful for what I have, but also inspiring to see the strength of one small boy. Frank McCourt didn’t just merely overcome poverty, he fought and fought and seemed to use all of his might to support not only himself, but his family. After reading this book and seeing where McCourt is today, it fills me with hope for others who are less fortunate, that with some determination anyone can climb out of poverty.





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hi

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If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on hi. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality hi paper right on time.

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Punk aint no religious cult


Punk means thinking for yourself


You aint hardcore cos you spike your hair


When a jock still lives inside your head


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Nazi punks


Nazi punks


Nazi punks-Fuck Off!


Nazi punks


Nazi punks


Nazi punks-Fuck Off!


If youve come to fight, get outa here


You aint no better than the bouncers


We aint trying to be police


When you ape the cops it aint anarchy


I kill children


I love to see them die


I kill children


And make their mamas cry


Crush em under my car


I wanna hear them scream


Feed em poison candy


To spoil their Halloween


So yourre in the kids ward


Youre in there cos youre ill


How about some Pavulon


So I can see you chill


Time to hit the scool bus


I think Ill shoot the tires


Offer them a helping hand


Of open telephone wires


Ever wanted to die?


Of course you have


But I wont till I get my revenge


I dont wanna see people any more


Things I never ever saw before


Make me see them for the shit they are


Take as many as I can away with me


Anyone can be king for a day I kill children


I love to see them die


I kill children


And make their mamas cry


Crush em under my car


I wanna hear them scream


Feed em poison candy


To spoil their Halloween


So yourre in the kids ward


Youre in there cos youre ill


How about some Pavulon


So I can see you chill


Time to hit the scool bus


I think Ill shoot the tires


Offer them a helping hand


Of open telephone wires


Ever wanted to die?


Of course you have


But I wont till I get my revenge


I dont wanna see people any more


Things I never ever saw before


Make me see them for the shit they are


Take as many as I can away with me


Anyone can be king for a day


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effecs of alcoholism

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If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on effecs of alcoholism. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality effecs of alcoholism paper right on time.

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Alcoholism is perhaps the most common form of drug abuse in America today. Alcohol is a liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as a solvent, antiseptic and sedative for potential abuse. Alcoholism is a primary chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. Alcohol affects every part of an alcoholic’s life, heir body, their mind, and their family life.


Family obligations and genetic factors cause some people to be especially vulnerable to alcohol. However, a family history of alcoholism doesn’t mean that children of alcoholics will automatically grow up to become alcoholics themselves. Enviornmental factors such as peer pressure and the easy availability of alcohol can also play roles. Although alcohol-related disorders can strike anyone, poverty and physical or sexual abuse can also increase the odds. Alcoholics put an enormous amount of emphasis on trying to please others and themselves. They may become painfully depressed or overly aggressive causing family life to deteriorate rapidly. Many families tend to deny the fact that the person is an alcoholic causing the situation to worsen. By allowing an alcoholic’s behavior to be controlled by a substance, the abuser, family members, friends and colleagues unknowingly become part of the problem. Substance abusers cannot stop the habit of drinking without the help of others. Abusing alcohol can have several effects on the family. These things can be anything like a lack of trust in other people, difficulty-expressing feelings, working hard to keep things going at home and at school, insecurity, loneliness, anger, frustration, guilt, and fear. However, one should not accept blame for someone else’s behavior, have an attitude that makes the alcoholic think that they are less


than oneself, use the if you loved me you would stop appeal, make idle threats, argue with the alcoholic when they are under the influence, and have unrealistic expectations. What one really should do is learn about alcoholism, develop an attitude to match the facts, talk to someone such as a professional counselor about alcoholism, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and take a stand about an alcohol free environment. The symptoms of alcoholism can start out minor and hard to detect at first, however they will rapidly show themselves over the course of time. Many of the symptoms may include loss of continuous impaired control over drinking, progression of the drug, use of alcohol despite consequences, distortions in thinking, personality change, and most notably denial. Many alcoholics say that they have a good reason for their drinking. These reasons vary considerably from loneliness to attraction, and escaping from pain to control issues. These patterns are common to addiction. No individual would like to admit that they are any different that anyone else.


Alcohol-related disorders can affect people in many ways. Small amounts of alcohol may have some beneficial physical effects, but heavy drinking can cause serious health problems and even death. Short-term effects include distorted perceptions, memory loss, hangovers and blackouts. However impotence, stomach ailments, cardiovascular problems, cancer CNS (Central Nervous System) damage, serious memory loss and liver cirrhosis (most severe form of liver disease). Upon exiting the liver the


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alcohol is distributed throughout other organs including the lungs, brain and kidneys. Also, cancer of the mouth esophagus and lungs as well as intestinal and pancreatic cancer often occur as a result of alcoholism. After alcohol reaches the frontal lobe, which has, direct control over judgment, visual perception and decision-making skills. The body has a natural chemical that gives a feeling of a “natural high”. It happens in the presence of a life endangering situations. This chemical is an adrenaline, which is meant to


prepare the body for defense in the case of an emergency. Alcohol tricks the body into giving off the chemical and in turn; get the “high” feeling. The problem alcohol has though is that when it goes to the brain, it blocks the synapses in the brain, that portions of the brain cannot perform its usual tasks such as speaking, walking, seeing, etc. Since the body is in a high state for so long, instead of just for a few minutes, it becomes addicted and depends on the alcohol for normal function. In small doses, alcohol has a


tendency to provide warmth, comfort, and relaxation. But when the drinker is unable to control the amount they have, they become more outgoing, self confident and inhibited.


Many people believe that alcohol acts as a “social lubricant”. Many expect all increased social pleasures, assertions, talkativeness and even happiness when they drink in these situations. Alcohol is said to reduce tension an anxiety. This in turn allows a drinker to feel more relaxed and comfortable in social situations. However, this also encourages the drinker to drink more when under stress. Alcohol also affects the mind in other ways not just socially. But what the drinkers don’t take into consideration is that the alcohol dulls the brain and confuses physical reactions, which leads to numerous injuries, accidents, and deaths. As a result of the drunk drivers, 5,000 deaths occur each year. More that 16 to 4 year olds are killed as a result of drunk driving or are involved in accidents where someone is driving drunk that any other age group in the nation. Alcohol is believed to directly stimulate feelings of power and the need to dominate. Alcohol also has a direct affect on sexual relations. Most people think that consumption of alcohol will increase their sexual performance when in all actuality it increases the desire, but it takes away from the performance. It’s often found that women can control the sexual feelings more adequately then men can, which gives reason to why more women are raped and assaulted then men.


Although alcohol affects every part of life, it also has an irreversible effect on the body. Alcoholism is treatable but so far no cure has been found. This means people remain susceptible to relapses even after they’ve been sober for a long time. Alcohol related disorders could severely impair peoples functioning and health. But the prospects for long- term recover are good for people who seek help from approiate sources. Qualified


psychologists with experience in this area help those who suffer from alcohol- related disorders to stop drinking and start regaining control of their lives.





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Water Conservation in High Schools

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It is in my opinion that if the youth of America do not change their attitudes on water conservation then we will eventually run into serious trouble. The point of view towards water that teenagers have today is that they have an unlimited supply of water and don’t have to worry about it. However, they are very wrong, at the current rate of water consumption, within a reasonable amount of time, the freshwater and groundwater supply will begin to run dry. Teenagers have no real conception on just how much work it takes to extract water and purify to make drinkable by the public. Nor do they have any idea about just how much water costs to produce. I feel that the government, national and state, should take a stand in this dilemma and develop a campaign to try to solve it. Conversely, adults have the same problem. Some adults do not bother to go that extra little step to save water, but rather they use more water because of the simple fact that it is easier. A few ways I believe we can get high school students to conserve water is by taking them to a water plant, put them in a simulation of were they have to ay the water bills and deal with the ongoing water problem in the future, and you could show them a projection of what life would essentially be like in 00 years when all of the ground water is used up and we have to find different methods to gather rain water.


One thing that you could do to help kids understand just how complex the water purification and extraction process is take them to a water plant and explain to them about it. You could tell them how water is purified and cleaned once it is extracted from the ground so they begin to grow a form of respect for water and the people who devote their lives to it. Also, you could explain how long it takes ground water to move, and how if it is all used up then it takes even longer to get water and prices sky rocket.


Another idea for getting high school students to want to conserve water is to show them just how much it is. Put them into a situation as if they were adults and they had to pay a constantly rising water bill, while their kids are asking them for a new car. Then they may realize that by conserving water and getting other people to they may gain in other aspects of their life. You may also use analogies such as, if you use a water conserving showerhead instead of a regular one then you would be able to put that money to new shirts, or similar analogies that would make them want to conserve.


The last thing that high schools may try is putting on a demonstration on a computer or similar media, and show them what life would be like without water. Through this they can come to appreciate just how valuable water is to us. We could show them how their grandkids would have to live by buying water bottles just to get fresh water, or never being able to was their cars. Simply by showing them all of the luxuries that we have today taken away from their kids would make them want to conserve water.


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In conclusion, I think that no matter who or how we need to do something drastic about the ongoing problem of water conservation in America. At the current rate of consumption, we are bound to be in trouble within a few hundred years or even sooner. Whether it be taking them to a water plant, putting them in a simulation were they have to deal with the troubles of water and money, or by showing them a projection of what life would be like in a few hundred years when all the water is used up. Some form of action must be taken to solve this problem.





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Civil War in Angola

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Civil War in Angola


Angola is situated in the West coast of Southern Africa with an area of 1,46,6 square kilometers. The population of Angola is around 8.5 million and the religions in the country include Roman Catholic, Protestant, and traditional religions. The rebel group known as the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) however, is currently fighting a civil war against the Luanda government to gain power in the country (Angola Report 1-).


After almost 500 years of Portuguese rule, Angola gained independence in 175. Most Portuguese settlers fled the country during the war for independence leaving a severe shortage of political and economic skills. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) formed a government under leader Agostino Neto, but despite a succession of peace agreements, civil war with the rebel movement UNITA has dominated Angola for the last 5 years (Angola Report). Although the rebel movement signed the Lusaka treaty in 14, this has not resulted in a lasting peace and the political situation remains unstable. Trade sanctions imposed on the UNITA leadership by the United Nations have consistently been violated with illegal diamond trafficking providing funds for the rebels. President Jose Eduardo dos Santos has announced that elections will be held during 001 (The Angola ongoing Civil war -5).


Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 175. A 14 peace accord between the government and UNITA provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 17, but serious fighting resumed in late 18, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of Jonas SAVIMBI and a cease fire with UNITA may bode well for the country (Tomas4-5).


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A possible solution is secure international help to strengthen local government and aid orphans, refugees, former UNITA combatants and displaced people; generate jobs; disarm former fighters; curb criminal activity; set up international monitoring of peace efforts (Mans1-).


The war has left most of the country in ruins. UNITA and MPLA have planted enough land mines for every person in Angola. The United Nations reported that more than 500,000 people were driven from their homes in 18. Causing more complications


to any resolution for this civil war (Angola Report -4).





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The coliseum

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The coliseum


In the ancient world, there stood uncountable slaves building a structure not only important to their past civilization but also important to the present and future civilizations of this rich land, Rome. This elliptical shaped structure known as the Coliseum or the Flavian Amphitheatre, took nearly ten years to build. Reaching almost 48 meters up high, it was the largest structure of its type. The Coliseum was used as theatre in which comedic contests, exotic animal shows, and professional gladiator events took place, some say that Christians were burnt to death in it while others say that’s only a rumor. Although nowadays the Coliseum isn’t used the way it was years ago its still admired by many all over the world that’s what makes it important now, it’s a huge tourist attraction, in the past it was used by the rulers of Rome and its citizens to watch those incredible events that took place in it. Many roots lie and will lie within the Coliseums past, present and future.


The construction of the coliseum started during the time that emperor Vispasian ruled (70-7ADE), and was finished by his son Titus after his death. The coliseum was dedicated the year after Vispasians death by Titus. The opening of the coliseum was celebrated by holding a hundred days worth of games. Day after day the Romans would go to the coliseum just to watch the plays, concerts and bloody sports that took place in it, going to the coliseum was probably the most popular thing to do at the time. The number of people going there just for the events that took place in it was never an issue since the coliseum could hold up to 50,000 people. For four centuries men, women, and animals died as an entertainment for the crowd. At first there were fights to death between wild animals; bear against buffalo, buffalo against elephant, and elephant against rhinoceros, later on the fights between men and wild animals, and combat between gladiators began. After ADE404 the coliseum was largely abandoned so later on in the middle ages, stones from the structure were used to construct other buildings.


The four floored, oval coliseum like said earlier could seat up to 50,000 spectators on marble and wooden chairs. This ancient structure is about 48 meters high, 10 meters long and 155 meters wide. The arena on the floor of the coliseum is about 85 meters long and 55 meters wide. The spectators were separated from the arena by a wall about 4.5 meters high. The coliseum is made of brick and concrete with stone covering the exterior, it had Greek columns decorating the outside without supporting the architecture. With eighty entrances all numbered except for the four main entrances wider than the others and reserved for the emperor, it was designed in such a way that made the crowds able to leave in less than 5 minutes. Wooden flooring was used to cover the subterranean chambers where the gladiators as well as the animals were kept prior performance. During the first ten years of its existence, the stadium was filled with water and used for mock naval battles. However, over time the Romans found it was damaging to the foundation as well as to the flooring. Now more than two-thirds of the original building is missing. The coliseum is very much similar to other amphitheatres, except this one is much bigger.


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Nowadays Tourists from allover the world would love to see such an amazing and breathtaking structure. The Significance of the coliseum today is that it is a huge tourist attraction in present time Rome. Everyday in Rome people going to work, kids going to school, and people just going out for a peaceful walk might see the coliseum and just stand there and stare at it, studying every tiny detail about it, amazed by how someone from the ancient world could possibly come up with such an amazing design so complex and advanced. Tourists allover the world go to Rome just to see the amazing accomplishments of the ancient Romans. The coliseum obviously is a very important structure for both the past, present, and future civilizations of Rome.


In the past the coliseum was built for the publics benefit, now the coliseum is visited by more than a million tourist a year. In the past people would go to this amazing structure to get entertained by all sorts of ways. Now the coliseum is one of the most famous and architecturally advanced structure all over the world. Everyone understands just how important our ancient ancestors were and are when they see structure like the coliseum or the pyramids, both these ancient structures show us that without our ancestors who helped us have such easy lives we would be nothing! Many roots lie and will lie within the Coliseums present history and past.





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Depression

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We’ve all experienced a loss of energy at some point; after a hard day of work, after a soccer game, or from simply shopping too long. Does this mean we’ve suffered a depressive disorder? The answer is possibly yes, and no. It is a myth that depression is a normal part of the aging process. Often times it is mistaken for feelings of sadness, grief, or feeling blue. As a matter of fact, the elderly experiencing a major depression may not feel sad at all. Also, often times, major depression is overlooked or misdiagnosed for a dementia because of common symptoms of poor memory, difficulty concentrating, or a poor attention span making learning new material difficult. Depression is plainly considered a mood disorder that affects ones thinking, behaving, feeling and functioning. It refers to a treatable physical and psychological condition, which has lasted at least two weeks.


Not only is depression a mood disorder, it is also classified as an illness that affects the entire body, not just the mind. It is an illness that one in five people will suffer during their lifetime, and that affects 1 million Americans each year, or ten percent of the adult population. It affects all ages, races, economic groups, and both genders. However, women suffer from depression almost twice as much as men do. Which means one in four women, as opposed to one in eight men, are likely to experience a depressive disorder in their lifetime. Some of the famous people who suffered depression include Queen Elizabeth 1, President Abraham Lincoln, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who called depression the black dog that shadowed my life. Even infants can suffer from the severe depression called a reactive attachment disorder, when baby lacks attention or nurturing, especially from the mother. There are six types of depression Dysthymia, Cyclothymia, Major Depression, Bipolar or manic depressive illness, seasonal affective disorder, and post partum depression. With all the people suffering from any one of the depressive disorders, there are many elements that contribute to the cause of the condition.


Largely, depression is the result of a complicated process of various genetic, psychological, and environmental factors. One important factor is biochemistry and the balance of naturally occurring chemicals in the brain. People who suffer it often experience a reduction, or in-balance, of certain chemicals called neurotransmitters. When the two chemicals are unbalanced, it can lead to symptoms of depression. Genetics can also be a key factor in diagnosing depression. Depression tends to run in families. A child with one parent with depression has a 10 % to 1 % increased chance of developing the condition. With twins, the chance is even greater. If one twin has it, the other one has a 70 % chance of developing the illness sometime in his or her life. Even life events such as divorce, serious illness, multiple misfortunes, fear of failure, social rejection, and alcohol or drug abuse may cause depression. Ironically, as drug and alcohol abuse may cause depression, depression is also the leading cause of alcoholism, drug abuse, and other addictions. Lastly, continuous baring to violence, neglect, abuse, or poverty can lead to chemical imbalances making people even more vulnerable to the illness.


Aaron, a 0 year old who suffered depression for most of his life, has experienced almost all the symptoms, which have altered his life completely. His father had died in an accident when he was a baby, as his family moved away soon after that. They started out from scratch, with literally nothing on their backs. No place to stay, no friends. Aaron and his family were alone in the world. Aaron ended up raising himself because of problems with the mother, and never had any long-term relationships. In high school at the age of 15, he felt 50 and was honestly ready to die. He felt he had lived long enough, and was tired of trying to fight for his life. Aaron began to feel isolated and alone as he turned to drugs and alcohol. Weeks later, he quit doing drugs, but then only wanted to die even more. He had several unsuccessful suicide attempts as he struggled to keep his sanity each day. As you can see, this is an example of a situation where there were family problems that led into the causes of Aaron’s depression. This is just one of the many stories involving depression.


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Depression is an illness that can be successfully treated in more that eighty percent of the people who have it, although at least half of the people suffering from the disorder do not get the proper treatment. This is because the symptoms of two out of three people with the disorder are not recognized, are blamed on personal weakness, or are misdiagnosed. With that fault, untreated depression is the number one cause of suicide, with a rate of 15 %. But before even considering treatment for patients, there are a wide variety of symptoms a person would have to suffer before being diagnosed with depression.


Symptoms of depression include a persistent sad mood, a loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyed, a significant change in appetite or body weight, difficulty sleeping or oversleeping, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and having recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. These are just a few of the most common symptoms. To be diagnosed as having a depressive illness, you must have experienced for at least two weeks, at least four or five of the listed symptoms. A young adult explains, “ I become virtually inarticulate; I can barely speak, which is the complete opposite of how I am normally. When I’m not depressed, most people would tell you it’s hard to shut me up. But when I’m depressed, putting words together into a simple sentence is like carrying water with a sieve.” � Unnamed patient. This is an example of a person suffering from depression with a symptom of having observably slowed or agitated spoken responses. With the wide range of symptoms noted, not everyone who is depressed experiences every symptom. Some people may encounter just a few symptoms, while others may feel many. Despite this uniqueness, treatment is available for anyone seeking it.


There are many ways to treat depression and prevent it from interfering with daily life. The large majorities, 80 % of people with depression, show some improvement with any of the several antidepressant medications. But at the same time, psychotherapy cannot be discounted. If a patient’s depression has been caused wholly by psychological factors, medication may relieve the depression, but the original cause will not be cured by medication alone. Therapy can help the patient with his or her past in a healthy manner, and also in learning ways to cope with the very difficult situations. Most therapy has a success rate from 65 % to 67 %. Throughout the entire period of depression, stress and illness are the prominent enemies. The tools for fighting them are eating right, exercising, and stress reduction. Though, as stated above, at least half of people suffering from depression do not get proper treatment, and only 0 % of patients seek professional help. This leaves 70 % of those patients untreated, as untreated depression is the number one cause of suicide.


In conclusion, depression is not something to be ashamed of, and is not the same thing as feeling “blue” or “down”. Nor is depression a character flaw or the sign of a weak personality. It is nothing more than an illness that affects the entire body. Commonly misunderstood, depression is not a “mood” someone can “snap out of”. Would you ask someone to “snap out of” diabetes or high blood pressure? It’s the same deal. Depression is an extremely common and potentially devastating condition. Its economic and personal costs are enormous in extent. For those affected, it is important to remember that depression is medical condition just like diabetes or cancer. And just as for all medical conditions, it is important for a doctor to know what form of depression you have before deciding on a treatment strategy.





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is stem-cell research ethical?

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Every day in science there are many advancements, discoveries and even setbacks. All of these are accomplished by one thing known as research. Research can be obtained through reference of reading, talking to people or even through experiments and tests. The most popular way of doing research in science today is through experiments and tests. This kind of research is well known in stem-cells. Stem-cells can be obtained from human embryos five to seven days old. These cells are used for research because they have the ability to morph into any tissue in the body. Some people debate that such research is immoral and unethical because in order to harvest the stem cells, the human embryos are destroyed. Stem-cell research is very ethical in finding cures for common diseases, finding out how an embryonic stem-cell accomplishes such tasks and losing an embryo is not as bad as most people think.


These stem-cells will soon have the ability to cure common diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. This is a great step in scientific research and discoveries for many doctors and scientists. The many people who have these life long diseases could be cured of them. Ronald McKay, a biologist at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland noticed the symptoms of Parkinson’s in rats had become less severe by using mouse embryonic stem cells which had been morphed into dopamine-producing brain cells. These cells do exactly what scientists want to be done in treating these diseases. Many religious groups argue that adult stem cells can be used for research but what they do not know is that adult stem cells do not form exactly the right kind of cell needed. Embryonic stem cells are just what the doctor ordered.


In order to use embryonic stem cells on humans, scientists must find out exactly how they work. This is a big section of the research done on these cells. Researchers want to determine how the cells morph into other cells and how to control which cells they turn into. If someone needs to be cured of diabetes, the embryonic stem cells must turn into new insulin-producing islet cells, not some other kind of unnecessary cell like a nerve cell. Research on these cells must be done to determine things like what happens if the body rejects the cells and how to make th body accept them. Scientists need to learn how to make these cells as effective as possible so they will fix the problem. To find the answers to all these dilemmas, research is much needed.


Society makes a big deal out of stem-cell research because in the process of obtaining the cells an innocent little embryo is lost. An embryo is not that big of loss if in the long run, cures and treatments for many major diseases are found. If it is really thought about, many cells are lost everyday in trees and plant and all sorts of actual living things. All these cells lost are equal to or even more important than embryos but no one seems to care about them. The beginning stages of a tree are ruined because someone steps on it. That is one less tree which is less oxygen for people to breathe. If that is lost and no one cares why should they care for an embryo that isn’t even a human being yet? The point is an embryo is the same thing as many of the innocent plant cells stepped on or killed all the time, so an embryo is not really that big of a deal if those plant cells are not either. As many people would say, there are more trees, so in turn, there are more humans and embryos.


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Stem-cell research is an ethical idea as it finds cures for common diseases, it helps find out how the stem-cells work and even though embryos are lost, they are not a big deal. Stem cells bring hope to the many people dying of such common and deadly diseases as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. In order to cure such diseases, scientists must understand and figure out how to control the actions of stem cells. As an embryo is lost, cures and treatments can be found and there are more embryos out there that are not being lost but are being grown into humans. In conclusion, stem-cell research is the best way to go to find any of these out including if losing an embryo is really worth gaining a cure.


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The Necklace

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Guy De Maupassants The Necklace is a story about a poor woman, Madame Loisel, who longs to be a woman of great class and wealth. After her husband brings home an invitation to a very social event, she borrows the perfect diamond necklace from a wealthy friend only to lose it. This event changes her life forever, causing both her and her husband to spend the next ten years repaying the debt of replacing the necklace. Sadly, after the debt is paid Madame Loisel finds out the necklace she borrowed had been a fake. Obviously, not at all worth the debt she had worked so hard to repay over the last ten years. Maupassants story shows how a single event can alter your life and/or even backfire on us. And, for some reason free essays wants more words included in this paper when this paper is central idea and perfectly fine at its actual word count. But, Im going to sit here and add in these extra sentences to make these people happy. Then, Ill be registered and able to review some of the summaries of others on stories I have read so that I can see the various conclusions people draw from reading stories. And, I wonder just how many more sentences this thing requires for me to move on and do what I need to do. Well, according to Word, this thing requires approximately thirty-two more words to meet the two hundred and fifty word requirement. And, starting with the word well in the last sentence through this word, I am at approximately the right number of words and I can now submit this, I hope.


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If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on cancer. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality cancer paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in cancer, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your cancer paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



I. The Basics


A. “Transformation” from a normal to a cancerous state occurs at the level of individual cells.


· metastatic cancer cells resemble the primary cancer


· cancers are usually clonal in origin


Custom Essays on cancer


(X-inactivation studies in females;


unique Ig or TCR rearrangements in lymphoid cancers)


· single cell transformation can be observed in culture systems


(decreased adherence, anchorage independence for growth,


loss of contact inhibition, decreased growth factor requirement,


increased nutrient uptake and membrane ruffling)


· Implications Cancer arises at the level of the single cell and therefore must be understood at that level. This is different than other common diseases such as hypertension or diabetes that are due to systemic perturbations in physiology.





B. Cancer is primarily a genetic disease.


· somatic mutations occur in common “sporadic” (non-familial) cancers


· inherited germline mutations occur in rare familial cancer syndromes


· increases in the mutation rate or genomic instability correlate with increased risk of cancer


· selection for mutations in cancer occur at the level of the single cell, not at the level of organismal survival.


C. Cells must make critical decisions in a multi-cellular organism.


· stem cell renewal; growth / quiescence; differentiation; cell death


· adult humans have a remarkable homeostasis of cell number


· communication between different cells is critical for this homeostasis


· failure at any of these decision points can lead to overgrowth


D. The good, the bad, and the ugly.


· tumor suppressor genes prevent transformation [good]


· oncogenes cause transformation [bad]


· loss of genomic integrity causes mutations in both [ugly]


II. Oncogenes


A. Oncogenes are dominantly acting agents of cellular transformation.


Note that a small number of different oncogenes explains a very large number of different types of cancer. This is a great simplification of the problem.


B. Independent lines of cancer research identify the same set of oncogenes.


1. Acutely transforming retroviruses


· why study tumor viruses?


rapid and reliable oncogenesis


can be readily quantitated


genetically simple only 4 genes instead of 60,000


· retroviral oncogenes required for transformation but not viral growth





· retroviral oncogenes (v-onc) arise from highly conserved cellular proto-oncogenes (c-onc) [examples v-myc in avian myelocytomatosis virus; v-ras in rat sarcoma virus; v-src in Rous sarcoma virus]


Note that Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is unusual because it has all three essential viral genes (gag, pol, env) and also contains a viral oncogene of cellular origin (src). Some transformation defective (td) mutants of RSV have completely lost the src gene but still replicate. All other acutely transforming retroviruses are replication defective because essential viral genes have been replaced by an oncogene (e.g. MC). Such defective viruses need a non-defective helper virus like ALV to provide essential replication functions.





. Retroviruses without oncogenes


· retroviruses are transposons which must insert into host DNA


· initial random integration sites = clonal selection by cell growth


= specific common integration sites in tumor cells


· insertional mutagenesis activates an adjacent proto-oncogene


[example activation of c-myc in avian bursal (B-cell) lymphoma]


· acutely transforming retroviruses arise by rare recombination of integrated virus with adjacent c-onc


Note that the viral oncogene is an intron-less cDNA copy of the original cellular proto-oncogene. This is because reverse transcriptase copies the already spliced RNA back into DNA.


Acutely Transforming Long Latency Retroviruses


Frequency of Tumors ~ every animal occasional animal


Latency of Tumors very short (weeks) long (months - years)


Clonality of Tumors polyclonal mono/oligoclonal


Viral Oncogene yes no


Transformation in Culture yes no


Integration Sites in Tumors random common; near proto-oncogene


. Gene amplification


· homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) and double minute chromosomes (DMs) are common in cancer cells


· these cytogenetic abnormalities represent gene amplification


· amplified regions often contain proto-oncogenes


[example N-MYC in neuroblastomas]





4. Chromosomal rearrangement


· most cancer cells have chromosomal abnormalities


· specific types of cancer often have consistent translocations


· these translocations activate proto-oncogenes at or near breakpoints





5. Transfection of human tumor DNA


· “immortalized” rodent fibroblasts in culture can be transformed to a cancerous phenotype by introduction of human tumor DNA


· such transformation requires a single dominantly acting oncogene


· activated RAS oncogenes are found in many human tumors


[example 50% of human colon cancers contain mutated N-RAS]


· caveats assay appears biased towards RAS; genes can be “activated” by rearrangement during transfection rather than by mutation in the original tumor; truly normal cells need more than one genetic change


6. Chemical carcinogenesis


· induction of specific cancers in rodents results in consistent mutations in the same proto-oncogene


[example specific point mutation in RAS in NMU-induced mammary carcinomas in rats]


· different chemical carcinogens cause cancers with consistent mutations in specific oncogenes [= useful for epidemiology of cancer?]





7. Rare familial cancer syndromes


· dominant inheritance


· germline mutation of proven oncogene


[example activating mutations of RET oncogene in human multiple endocrine neoplasia type and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma]


· note most familial cancer syndromes are caused by germline inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene (see below) rather than by germline activation of an oncogene


C. Protein products of proto-oncogenes are essential for normal growth and differentiation and are conserved in evolution.


1. Key components of various signaling pathways [RAS]





. Homologs of genes which determine cell identity [HOX]


. Inhibitors of cell death [BCL]


D. Mechanisms of proto-oncogene activation


1. Normal protein at wrong level, place, or time


[example activation of MYC by chromosomal translocations that cause transcriptional deregulation]


. Mutated protein


[example RAS mutations cause specific amino acid substitutions]


In response to an upstream signal, the inactive GDP-RAS undergoes exchange of GTP for GDP. The active GTP-RAS then sends a signal downstream. However, the intrinsic GTPase activity of the RAS protein limits the duration of this signal by converting the active GTP-RAS to an inactive GDP-RAS. The most common oncogenic mutations in RAS greatly decrease the intrinsic GTPase activity. This results in a prolonged and inappropriate signal output.


. Abnormal fusion protein after chromosomal translocation


[example BCR-ABL in chronic myelogenous leukemia]


4. Activation of normal cellular proteins by viral proteins


[examples papilloma virus E5 protein activates growth factor receptors in the absence of growth factors]





III. Tumor Suppressor Genes (Anti-Oncogenes)


A. Independent lines of research identify genes which prevent transformation.


1. Cell fusion experiments


· transformation is recessive in most fusions of normal and cancer cells


· somatic cell hybrids identify specific chromosomal locations of tumor suppressors = genetic cause





. Familial cancer syndromes identify genes that cause “sporadic” cancer.


a) Retinoblastoma as paradigm


· inherited form occurs earlier and in both eyes


· sporadic form occurs later and usually in only one eye


· Knudson’s hypothesis (two “hits” are required; familial cases inherit the first “hit” as a germline mutation)


· deletions of chromosome 1 correlate with disease


· reintroduction of Rb protein reverts transformed phenotype





b) Neurofibromatosis


(NF-1 is a negative regulator of RAS)


The intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS is normally increased by GAP (GTPase activating protein) activity. Loss of GAP function due to NF-1 mutations therefore causes prolonged signal output from RAS even without oncogenic mutations in RAS. This results in multiple benign tumors which only rarely (in ~% of patients) become malignant.





. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor cells


· tumor susceptibility genes usually show reduction to homo- or hemizygosity in cancer cells in familial cancer syndromes


· consistent loss of heterozygosity at a specific locus in sporadic,


non-familial cancers suggests the presence of a tumor suppressor gene


= major gene-hunting strategy in non-familial cancers


4. DNA tumor viruses


· some DNA viruses cause cancer in “non-permissive” and some natural hosts [example SV40, adenovirus, human papilloma viruses]


· these viruses “jump start” quiescent cells to permit viral replication


· viral oncogenes are required both for the viral life cycle and for malignant transformation (note unlike retroviral oncogenes, these genes do not appear to be of recent cellular origin)


· the protein products of many of these viral genes often bind to and functionally inactivate cellular tumor suppressor proteins





B. Normal functions of tumor suppressor proteins


1. Negative regulators of signalling pathways


· NF-1 negatively regulates RAS proteins (see above)


. Negative regulators of cell cycle progression


· Rb inhibits G1/S progression


. Positive regulators of adherence


· APC functions in cell-cell adhesion


4. Components of DNA damage sensors and repair pathways


· p5 prevents cell division in the presence of DNA damage





IV. Putting It All Together


The “clock” represents a typical cell cycle. The pointed arrows represent activation. The blocked arrows represent inhibition. Note that although the action of cyclin D directly inhibits the immediate downstream component (Rb), this downstream component in turn negatively regulates the cycle. Therefore, cyclin D is an activator in the overall scheme of the cell cycle (remember, a “double negative” equals a “positive”).


Growth factors, their receptors, the RAS pathway, and cyclin D all act positively to promote the cell cycle. Activated forms of these components can function as dominant oncogenes.


NF-1, Rb, and p5 all act negatively to inhibit the cell cycle if everything isn’t OK. These components function as tumor suppressors (STOP signs). Their absence contributes to cancer.





V. Development of Cancer is a Multi-Step Process


Studies of human populations imply that multiple “hits” are required for most cancers to develop. Multiple exposures to carcinogens increase the incidence and decrease the latency of onset of the disease.


Studies of progression of specific types of human cancer imply that these multiple “hits” represent different mutations that accumulate over time. The order of accumulation of these mutations in a particular type of cancer is generally similar, but not invariant.





Additional reading (reviews)


· Cooper, G.M., Oncogenes, nd Ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, 15.


· Bishop, J. M. “Cancer the rise of the genetic paradigm.” Genes and Development, 10-15 (15). A vivid overview of the history and major concepts of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.


· Kinzler and Vogelstein, “Lessons from Hereditary Colon Cancer”, Cell 87 15-170 (16). A review of the evidence that multiple genetic changes are required for human cancer, focusing on colon cancer as a model.


· Varmus, H.E. Nobel lecture. “Retroviruses and oncogenes. I.” Bioscience Reports, 10 41-0 (10). A personal account of the work that led to the discovery of cellular proto-oncogenes and a Nobel Prize for Bishop and Varmus.


Additional reading (original articles)


· Stehelin, D., et al., “DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA.” Nature 60 170- (176).


· Cavenee, W.K., et al. “Expression of recessive alleles by chromosomal mechanisms in retinoblastoma.” Nature 05 77-84 (18).


· Ionov, et al., “Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis.” Nature 6 558-61 (1).


Additional reading (original articles)


· Stehelin, D., et al., “DNA related to the transforming gene(s) of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA.” Nature 60 170- (176).


· Cavenee, W.K., et al. “Expression of recessive alleles by chromosomal mechanisms in retinoblastoma.” Nature 05 77-84 (18).


· Ionov, et al., “Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis.” Nature 6 558-61 (1).


Please note that this sample paper on cancer is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on cancer, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on cancer will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!