Prinicples of ethics

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The Principles of Ethics


Ethics is the search for universal objective principles for evaluating human behavior, good or bad. The ability to interpret the morally correct resolution to a moral, when confronted by a moral dilemma, can be a very difficult task. In societies today, ethics are developed by ones religious beliefs, government, and through experience. Social ethics serve as the premise for morality. There are two common systems of thought regarding ethics. One is absolutism, and the other is relativism.


Cultural relativism is the belief that right and wrong vary from one society to another and from one time to another. In practice, it is the belief that what is right for one person is not necessarily right for another person. The cultural relativist observes that some things that are considered wrong today in America, such as slavery, were not always considered wrong in America and are not always considered wrong in other societies today. In Middle Eastern countries, it is considered wrong for a woman to be out in public with her head uncovered, but elsewhere in the world it is acceptable and even the norm. From this they conceive that right and wrong must be relative, and that absolute right and wrong do not exist.


Absolutism, on the other hand, believes that right and wrong are based on a truth that doesn’t vary. The absolutist believes that what is right or wrong is always right or wrong whether or not a society recognizes it as such at the time. Absolutism is often founded in religious faith, believing that the truth of right and wrong comes from God, such as is found in the Ten Commandments. The absolutist views ethics much like the scientist views nature, that there is a truth out there waiting to be discovered and explained, and once explained everything else falls into place. For example, when an absolutist believes that life begins at conception, it becomes obvious to him or her that abortion is the taking of a human life and is, therefore, wrong.


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Humans through ethics, create morality, a personal or social code of conduct. The principles for one’s morality are founded by the ethical standards of their society. Through experience, education, religion, and morality humans develop morals based on social and religious ethics. Morals give humans the ability to distinguish the morally right and good decision to make when confronted with a moral dilemma. However, in some instances we are confronted with a morally problematic situation in which it is difficult to distinguish the morally correct solution. For example, we’ll consider the morally problematic situation faced by my neighbors, the Turners. The Turner family is like any average, American, middle-class family of Catholic faith. One night Michael, the Turners eldest son who had just graduated from college, went out to a bar to celebrate. Later, in the morning hours, Michael decides that he should go home. He decides to drive home even though he was full of liquor and could barely walk. On his way home Michael runs a red light, proceeds to smash into a car, thereby killing the driver. He then leaves the scene, of which there were no witnesses, and hurries home. Michael’s parents tell him to stay at the house while they attempt to resolve and analyze the situation. The next day, a couple of police officers arrive at the house and question Michael’s parents about his whereabouts on the previous night. Unbeknown to them he was a suspect for vehicular manslaughter and leaving the scene of a crime.


What is the morally correct decision for the Michaels parents to make in this situation? Should they protect their son from prosecution or hand him over to the proper authorities? His parents must decide which of their options is morally correct, and then choose that option. The ethical principles of divine moral authority and utilitarianism can be used to help a person distinguish the morally correct decision, when confronted with a morally problematic situation. In the Turners case, the two principles can be applied to their dilemma in order find the solution that is morally correct. However, the Turners through their examination raise another question. Why should we be moral? The morally correct solution to the Turners situation varies depending on the ethical principle that is applied. After analyzing the situation using the principles, one learns why we should be moral. Robert C. Mortimer, a philosopher during the 150s, developed the ethical principle of divine moral authority. The principles of divine moral authority are established primarily by the ethical principles of Catholicism. Mortimer states that, according to moral authority, “man’s ownership and use of the material world is not absolute, but subject to the law of God. In order to make a morally correct judgment, we must assure that the judgment coincides with natural moral law, the laws established by our God.


Natural moral law, in accordance with Mortimer, states that nature has intrinsic goals, without irregularities and purposes, in which the lower goals must be subordinate to higher goals. According to Mortimer, the Turners must analyze their situation according to natural moral law. Michael has killed a person, which violates one of most sacred laws of God, eve though he did not kill the person intentionally. Although Michael is their son, his parents must acknowledge that Michael has violated a moral law of the society and the law of God. Though Michael’s parents do not want their son to be taken away from them bad prosecuted, they must realize the severity of the situation. If Michael’s parents decided to elude the police and continue to protect their son, they too would be violating moral and ethical laws established by society and their God. Mortimer would argue that Michael’s parents must rely on reason and not their feelings because to make the body obey the mind is in harmony with nature. Through reason, without being contaminated by the functions of the body, Michael’s parents are able to justifiably acknowledge the morally correct solution to their situation. What if the parents are unable to distinguish the morally correct decision? Mortimer says that, when we are unable to make a morally correct decision, our conscience will provide the morally correct answer.


Ultimately, it is our conscience that allows us to decipher the morally good from the morally wrong. According to Mortimer, if the solution is contrary to a man’s own conscientious judgment there is a higher obligation to obey one’s own conscience. Through our conscience we establish the right and moral solution to a situation. After analyzing the Turners morally problematic situation, Mortimer would argue that society and God morally obligate Michael’s parents, to turn him over to the authorities. Michael’s parents must look beyond their sensations and realize that their son has committed a serious crime and that it is God’s will for him not to be punished, but corrected. However, the ethical principle of utilitarianism provides Michael’s parents with a different situation. John Stuart Mill developed the ethical principle of utilitarianism in the 1860s. Utilitarianism states that moral good is that action, which brings about the greatest happiness and least pain for the greatest number affected by that act because humans, naturally, desire happiness and avoid unhappiness. Again, Michael’s parents are confronted with another dilemma. Michael’s parents would, according to their desire for happiness, conclude that it is morally correct for them to elude the police and continue to conceal the whereabouts of their son. However, Michael’s parents must also take into account how their decision affects society. Does the Turners decision to protect Michael bring the greatest amount of happiness to everyone affected by Michael’s actions? What about the family of the person that Michael killed? If the police did not find Michael, then the greatest amount of happiness would not be experienced in the aspect of the victim’s family. Furthermore, justice would not be served which would not bring happiness to the society who demand justice is served. Mill would argue that, in spite of Michael’s parent’s feelings, turning their son in would be the morally correct thing for Michael’s parents to do even though happiness is not being brought to his parents.


In this situation Michael has violated laws established by our society and our God. Michael drove his car while he was intoxicated, ran a red light, fled the scene of a crime, and he committed the greatest sin when he killed a person. I realize that Michael did not mean to kill the person. Nevertheless, since he made the morally incorrect decision to drive while he was intoxicated he is responsible for murdering that person. Would the accident have taken place if Michael weren’t intoxicated? Probably not. Therefore, Michael is responsible for his own actions and ultimately responsible for the death of that person. I would argue that it is of moral good for Michael’s parents to turn him over to the police and allow him to be judged by society. Michael’s parents must realize that their son has to be corrected by society for his actions, because it is for his moral good and the moral good of the society. I also realize that Michael’s parents do not want to “lose” their son. But, they cannot rely on their feelings and must listen to what their conscience tells them. Ultimately, I think that the only, morally right, choice that Michael’s parents can make is too allow him to be prosecuted by society and their God for his actions. Why should Michael’s parents be moral? They should be moral because being moral is in accordance with the laws established by our God.


We are all driven by our conscience and soul to do what is morally right, some just choose the wrong path, but we are all consciously aware. Without morals there would be no justice or ethics. Our society is built from moral standards and ethics. Without ethics and morals there would be no society. Everything that exists today would not be present without ethics and morals; there would be no concept of good and bad. Morals and ethics make it possible for us to live in a society as a community with laws and regulations. The ethical principles of Mortimer and Mill raise many questions towards the morally problematic situation faced by the Turners. Although the Turners don’t want to lose their son, it is seen through both of the principles that the only morally correct solution for the family’s situation is for them to turn their son over to the police. Morals make us who we are as an individual and as a society. In order to have a prosperous society we must do what is morally good, in any instance. If we did not follow what was morally good, then our society would be filled with anarchy due to the lack of laws, and the world would run amuck.





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American Catholics

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Picture this if you will. In the beginning (being 145) god created a shepherd (the Catholic Church) in which we the sheep followed blindly. Everywhere the shepherd took us, we would follow without complaint. A sheep dared not question the Shepherd or stray from the flock in fear of being labeled a bad sheep (catholic) and suffering the consequences of eternal damnation. But as time went on and the sheep modernized, however the shepherd was stubborn and conservative in his ways and refused to change. So the sheep began to stray from the shepherd with little fear, scattering, going to other pastures and other flocks with other Shepherds. The Shepherd realized his flock was depleting so he began to modernize as well and changed his ways. With this now modern shepherd, the modern sheep began to gradually come back. But living in a modern pasture the relationship between the two had changed. Mr. Houston fellow students, “What were the reasons for the decline of Catholicism in America since 145”, this has been the topic of my research for the previous three terms. The previous analogy, although being far fetched, if you put it into perspective outlines my opinion on the development of Catholicism since 145 to the present day. That initially we followed the Catholic Church unquestionably and devoutly, mass on Sundays, fish on Fridays (etc). But as society modernized and became increasingly secular in education, the media and politics, people began to question some of the church teachings and the church authorities. Though the church, lead by conservatives initially would not change. As Catholics began to move away, the church realizing the situation reassessed their position at Vatican , which resulted in the modernized Catholic Church. Consequently from here catholic membership began to increase, however the nature of Catholicism changed. This leads me to my hypothesis In our modernized secular society, catholic membership began to drop initially, due to the conservative views of the church. As a result of Vatican Catholicism was modernized and membership within the religion was re-established. Although the nature of Catholicism has changed in this age of materialism and consumerism, this does not necessarily indicate direction of decline. Before I begin my findings I would like to define the nature of secularism which is a word you will hear throughout my research. Secularism rejection of religious and sacred forms and practices in favour of rational assessment and decision-making, and civil institutions of government Within my assignment I broke my research into 6 main areas 1. How have the changes in politics affected Catholicism since 145 . How has America’s rapid social change and culture affected Catholicism . How has modernisation, science and technology affected Catholicism in America 4. How has the mass media affected Catholicism since 145 5. How has modern education affected Catholicism 6. Whether Catholicism has declined in America To my first sub-question whether Catholicism has declined in America. The Gallup Poll, a world-leading source of public opinion established in 15, that showed catholic membership has actually increased over the years with slight dips at various points. Although does this really mean that Catholicism is not in decline. For example the Gallup Poll states church attendance fell from 74% 158 to 48% 188. So devotion has dropped considerably over the years, but as a result of what? At Vatican 160’s one of the many changes that precipitated was that Sunday Mass attendance was no longer a serious sin. Also another cause of devotional decay occurred as a result of the Popes birth control encyclical in 168. According to Greeley “it sent the church into a sudden and dramatic decline; Sunday and weekly mass attendance dropped off sharply”. Although does this drop in devotion translated to the decline in Catholicism. Not necessarily for as Greeley states ‘Religious behaviour may change but that change is not in the direction of decline’. So consequently I found through an analysis of 0th century Catholicism that catholic membership in this century has not diminished but that devotion has and that the decline in devotion is inextricably linked to a decline in credibility or leadership and acceptance of sexual teaching. There are two possibilities- the Vatican council and the birth control encyclical. Does it not seem reasonable to assume- until someone deduces contrary evidence-that the council heightened expectations for change and the encyclical shattered them especially since the devotional change occurred after the encyclical. So to my second research question, How have the changes in politics affected Catholicism since 145. It seems Abraham Lincolns ‘One Nation Under God’ plays a very little role in politics as over the years the political arena has become very secular in nature. According to Moyer after “145 in particular, the political agenda seemed to revolve almost entirely around the humdrum business of ‘who gets what, when, how.’” Much of the blame for this secularity in politics is placed on liberals operating through the federal government. Liehman and Wuthnow mention “America is in a spiritual crisis and the cause of this crisis is simply the application by the federal government of liberal ideas and politics.” Thus what is now seen is a bias in politics by these powerful liberal minorities in charge who tend to shrug off religious issues that the majority of the population are concerned about. Wuthnow states “The current leaders of government are overly hostile to religion. As a result people of faith are either prevented from participating fully and actively in discussions about important public issues or they voluntarily withdraw because they recognise their efforts would be ineffective.” So what I have discovered is there is not really a decline in Catholicism but there is merely an unfair representation of individuals (secular liberal politicians) in high places who tend to ignore Catholicism and other religious issues, but the faith in the population remains. Now to my third research question, How has America’s rapid social change and culture affected Catholicism. Carlin Suggests“ For better or for worse the U.S has always been and likely will be nation of incorrigible religious pluralism.” Which is a society that recognises more than one religious principle. For a long time American Catholics stood outside the circle of general tolerance towards other denominations, insisting it was the one true church. Catholics lived in ghettos and believed salvation only came through their religion. However as a result of Vatican in 160s Catholicism witnessed great cultural change. From the council emerged denominational tolerance and the disappearance of these ghettos. Their was a lot more freedom in Catholicism, instead of we are the only way to salvation came we are one of the ways to salvation.This new open mindedness in the catholic church appealed to Catholics and drew new membership. Catholicism before the council was not so stable, the church appeared to be solid rooted and unchanged fish on Friday; mass on Sunday in Latin etc. But then almost over night it was all right to eat meat on Friday, Mass was said in English with the priest facing the people etc. Greeley states ‘Catholicism in America is more healthy and alive today than it was before Vatican .’America is a society engulfed in a culture of the American Dream, in pursuit of the almighty dollar. Reeves states “We are consumed by our jobs and endless pursuit of the power, cash, status and the pleasure of promise ‘personal fulfilment and happiness’ we therefore go about our lives pretty much the same as those who have no faith at all.” One could speculate as to how Catholicism could survive in an age of materialism and consumerism. But this speculation is false for Catholicism has survived and its presence is increasing as Gallup Poll shows us. Money means a lot of things but it still doesn’t bring meaning to life, this is why Catholicism co-exists in this materialistic society. Consequently you could be easily mistaken to think that Catholicism is in decline in this culture of consumerism where it is easy to forget this(god) when is search of this(money). But ‘Money can’t buy faith’ and this is why the Catholic faith exists today as strong as ever. To my fourth subquestion How has modernisation, science and technology affected Catholicism in America. From 145 till Vatican modernization, science and technology were thought of as enemies by the Catholic church. Darwin’s theory of evolution was banned from all Catholic schools. But as the conservative church leaders kept rejecting modernization, lay Catholics began to reject the church and membership dropped significantly. As Bruce suggests “Technical advances gradually removed areas of uncertainty and unpredictability and by doing so shrunk the regions of life for which religion was thought to offer the best explanations and remedies.’ Although science and technology opened our eyes to new wonders of the world does this mean the decline of faith? Not necessarily, I concluded the decline this was not caused by science and technology but rather the conservative church leaders rejecting it initially. What they did not realize is how Reeves describes ‘Science knows nothing about absolute truth’. Science can’t offer explanations on the meaning of life, or the after life this is where Catholicism serves its purpose. At Vatican church leaders woke up to the myth of science against Catholicism and as Levi states ‘abandoned its stance towards the world and its modern development’. After Vatican two Catholic membership began to rise again as individuals came back to a modern church which was now inter-linked with science and technology. As Noble states ‘there is a simultaneous flourishing of both, not only side by side but also hand in hand.’ So in respect to the decline in Catholicism due to modernization, science and technology. I found that it was merely a myth that was initially believed by the conservative church, but now in the modern church the two are inter-linked. How has the mass media affected Catholicism since 145. With almost every household receiving some form of media coverage it is evident that the mass media is very influential in America and indeed most western societies. In today’s society as Reeves states “studies have shown an overwhelming bias against religion by media leaders. In one survey of the media elite, 86% said they seldom or never attended religious services and 50% listed their religion as none.” Television critic Howard Rosenberg observed “ You see more hookers, rapists and serial murders on TV than clerics.” In 10 the media research center published an extensive study of the media documenting a powerful left wing and secular bias. More recently in the last 4 years the media research center conducted an annual study into the quantity and quality of T.V religion coverage. They found that year after year the total news content of religion failed to crack the one- percent barrier. In a NBC statement “what a strange formula, if it is secular you can report it. But if it is religious, it’s radioactive, third rail, and controversial stuff. How sad, especially when you consider that religion according to a national survey is quintessentially important to 1% of the public”. It seems as with politics there is a disproportionate number of secular minded individuals in the media who tend to shrug of religious issues. Because of the media’s great influence a misconception is created of decline of Catholicism and for that matter any religion, when really the faith still remains in the population. How has modern education affected Catholicism. From the late 140’s to the present, public education in America has been completely secularized. 147 Everson v. Board of education the court had declared that the first Amendment erected “a wall of separation between church and state. 161 Torcaso v Wathins court declared that a State could not require public employees to believe in the existence of god. 16 Abington v Schempp, Supreme Court struck down, sponsored bible readings and recitation of the lords prayer in public schools. The Washington Evening star stated “God and religion have all been but driven from the public schools.” Consequently because of the changed public sector of education you could easily believe that it would result in decline of Catholicism. However with this change as Rose states “ Evangelicals began withdrawing from the public schools in 150’s.Between 160-175 public school enrolment declined by 40% while Christian school enrollments increased by a factor of 4-5. “ Rose goes on to say ”The Christian schools movement is today the fastest growing sector in private education representing the second largest group. The first being Roman Catholics.” Therefore with the decline in Catholicism in the public sector there was a shift in enrollments from public to private. This indicates the strong sense of catholic faith that still exists in American society. With all the extreme opinions out there it is easy to get caught up in the myth that Catholicism can’t exist in a culture of materialism where liberal politicians rule in our governments and we are engulfed in modernisation, science and technology. Although devotion is down there has been a lot of change in the church and being a Catholic today is a lot different than it was fifty years ago and this does not reflect decline. Furthermore the fact is Catholicism still does exist and statistic’s show is on the increase, reasons for this being money, science and politics can do a lot of things but still will never fill up the hunger that exists in our lives for meaning.


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Arthur Rimbaud

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Walt Whitman, William Blake, and Arthur Rimbaud are three nineteenth century poets who shared styles, philosophies, and views of the world. They were writers searching for enlightenment and understanding of the world in which they lived; a world held in contempt for the injustices and inhumanities suffered by or because of it’s people. Many of these authors’ works would embody a clear disdain for ideals that went against those Whitman, Blake, and Rimbaud held so dear. They told their stories though vivid imagery, touching into taboo topics that frequently reflected aspects of their lives. Sexual, and sometimes homosexual, notions tended to appear in the poetry and prose of these three writes.


Blake dabbled with provocative imagery in the poem The Sick Rose; “The invisible worm…has found out thy bed of crimson joy.” There are subtle sexual allusions in the tale of a worm that flies through the night and destroys the life of a fragile flower. The poem possesses a frailty, conveying the idea that an innocent rose has been raped and ravaged by a devious man (the worm being referred to as ‘he’ during the final verse). It has a quite beautiful quality to it. The syntax, short verses, and the haunting descriptions convey a very powerful feeling of something small and/or weak being abused. Walt Whitman offered some powerful suggestions of sexuality, only with a slightly different approach.


Whitman’s work seemed to have underlying homosexual tendencies. In the 11th section of Song of Myself A Poem of Walt Whitman, an American, he tells a tale of twenty-eight young men bathing, being very descriptive when describing them. Again during the 1th section of an American, Whitman describes a ‘negro’ holding the reins of four horses; “The sun falls on his crisp hair and moustache � falls on the black of his polished and perfect limbs.” These vivid pictures Whitman paints in his poems are very provocative and would seem to be especially risqu� for the nineteenth century. Whitman’s writing seems to venture into the realm of homosexuality, as does some work by Arthur Rimbaud.


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A Season in Hell, by Arthur Rimbaud, contains a chapter titled Delirium I The Foolish Virgin The Infernal Bridegroom, where he depicts the torrid love affair of two men. This tale is supposed to reflect the affair between an older man named Verlaine and Rimbaud himself. “His mysterious delicacies had seduced me,” Verlaine’s character spoke as he began to describe his affair with Rimbaud. Rimbaud goes so far as to have Verlaine’s character coyly state his sexual preference, “I do not like women love must be reinvented.” Taboo topics surrounded these writers with much criticism and controversy, but scandal helped make these artists great. Rimbaud’s writing is so elegant and poetic, it is wonderful to pick apart and interpret.


Religion appeared as a common topic with these artists. The Church was a very powerful and influential force in the nineteenth century; Blake often questioned it in his work. In The Garden of Love Blake talks of a chapel being built over top of a beautiful field, replacing the flowers with graves, and binding us with it’s rules and beliefs. Blake again attacked the Church in his poem The Little Vagabond. Blake compares the ‘cold’ church to the ‘healthy, pleasant, and warm’ Ale-house, “…if at the Church they would give us some Ale…we’d sing and we’d pray all the live-long day.” It is a very interesting concept, the proposition of combining the sacred with the voracious. The idea is actually very stimulating to indulge in; inviting the social revelry of the pub into the sullen domain of the House of God; the sins of the night are combine with the morning of the Sabbath. Walt Whitman and Arthur Rimbaud seemed to believe in God more so than organized religion.


Whitman acknowledges the Lord as the creator and the guiding hand, “And I know that the hand of God is the elderhand of my own,” he writes in An American.


Rimbaud wrote about both a love and a loathing of religion. He criticized the Christian beliefs in A Season in Hell; “…ever since that declaration of science, Christianity, man fools himself.” It appears that Rimbaud does not believe so much in organized religion, as he also comments of “the bastard wisdom of the Koran,” but he does seem to believe in a God. “God is my strength and I praise God,” Rimbaud writes, as he speaks of the ‘divine love’ that is the roots of life.


Rimbaud comes across as being a very rebellious youth, but one equipped with a superb intellect, viewing the world around him with wide and curious eyes. He sheds light onto many topics and is very opinionated and introspective. He laments of his Hell on earth, then rejoices of his lust for life. Rimbaud’s writing almost defines him as being bipolar, invigorated one moment and lost in sorrow and disappointment the next. His thoughts were very well composed, although they are conveyed as endless contradictions. It makes reading interesting.


Their words reflect their thoughts and beliefs; Arthur Rimbaud, Walt Whitman, and William Blake stood out as important authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Chased by the controversy of the topics they embraced, these writers became icons and influences to those who would follow. They wrote with composure, elegance, and intelligence, acknowledged by the many readers who have read them, and the writers who attempt to reinvent them.





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Example of business report writing

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Most company decisions involve the cooperation and interaction of quite a few individuals and thus, business report writing. Sometimes dozens of colleagues and co-workers strive in unison to understand mutual goals of business report writing. Lines of communication must for that reason be maintained to facilitate these joint efforts. With out communicating ideas and thoughts it would be impossible to identify well-liked objectives and purposes needed for successful operations, etc. With out communication and business report writing, team jobs it permits, the successful completion of any critical project can be jeopardized. Some aspects from the business report writing project would be unnecessarily replicated while other tasks would be left unattended. Further, inside the absence of ample business report writing, colleagues would discover themselves working at business report writing purposes and maybe pursuing opposing goals. What 1 team member may have worked to assemble 1 day, a second team member may dismantle the next. With out business report writing the chances for your successful outcome of any corporation endeavor are much reduced. However, to perform a business report writing you must isolate the difficulty and collect the needed data. The audience must be clearly known including a sample carefully chosen. The researcher then conducts business report writing and prepares to report the results. As noted above, business report writing getting followed in reporting a statistical facts consists of rather precise and well-defined steps that is certainly modified slightly. Effortlessly right after the title write-up the business report writing provides an account of its conclusions and recommendations. From the an corporation setting this business report writing is usually known as an executive summary.

Therefore, the functionality of this business report writing is to illustrate a few of the major principles of business communication and the preparation of corporation reports, the general functionality and critical features, stress the rewards of highly effective activities, etc.

midnight for charlie

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MIDNIGHT FOR CHARLIE


My story begins when Charlie got a phone call from Mark. Mark asked Charlie if he wanted to come to his birthday party. Charlie said he would be happy to come.


Charlie was thinking what to get Mark for a card. Charlie remembered that he had a picture of Mark’s dog. The picture was funny, it was Mark’s dog with his tongue hanging loose. Charlie asked his mom if she could take the picture to the store to have it enlarged. She said she would be glad to get the picture enlarged.


When Charlie received the picture back it was different. It was a man holding a baby. There was something about the picture that made Charlie feel weird. Then Charlie realized he could hear the words and see the movement in the picture. He could hear the baby crying, the man yelling and the woman screaming. Charlie wondered if that was real or his imagination.


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Charlie told his mom that she got back the wrong picture. Charlie’s mom called his aunts, the Yewbeams. The Yewbeam aunts wanted to question Charlie. When they came over they showed Charlie the picture and asked him if he saw anything. Charlie pretended not to see anything, but he really did see and hear. Charlie was relieved that the questions were over.


Then the next night Charlie saw Uncle Patan walk out the door. Charlie followed his Uncle Patan down the street. When Charlie was turning at the corner his Uncle said, “ Why are you following me?” Charlie replied “What?” Uncle Patan said I knew you were following me. Then Uncle Patan and Charlie walked back to the house.


The next afternoon a tall man appeared at the door. He said he was here to look for mice. Charlie said “Who called you about the mice?” The tall man immediately went into the kitchen and opened a cabinet. There was a whole family of mice. The man took out a yellow envelope. The envelope contained the picture of the man holding the baby. The tall man said the baby is missing. The tall man told Charlie, he must find the baby at Bloor Academy.


A week later Charlie went to Bloor Academy. Bloor Academy was an enormous school. Charlie asked questions concerning the baby’s whereabouts. Charlie got a couple of clues. The first clue was the baby was in the basement. Charlie went down into the basement. The basement was huge. There were ten doors, only one was locked. Charlie had to find the key to the one locked door. Charlie opened all nine of the unlocked doors. Through the last unlocked door Charlie found the key to the locked door. Charlie then took the key and opened the locked door. Charlie found the baby behind the locked door and gave the baby back to his parents. The mystery was solved and everybody was happy.








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Child Protective Services:Substantial Government Funding Equals Key To Success

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Child protective services is an integral piece of the puzzle of today’s healthy society. In recent times, a concerned eye has been turned to the way policies and practices are used in areas of child protection and in the treatment and support of the families and child’s welfare. The lack of support for the families involved in child abuse from child protective services takes away from the intended effectiveness of the program. This lack of support would be easily rebuilt if a holistic approach for treating the complete abuse and neglect situation were implemented. The absence of government funding has plundered any efforts to turn this desperate situation around. This leads me to a conclusion that child protective services is in dire need of reform. Some of possible avenues of improving this nation’s child welfare system are increasing the allocated annual funding amount from the federal government to provide more sufficient wages and to enabling the hiring of more qualified social workers. Also, incorporating a holistic approach, including more community-based programs to combat the growing number of cases of child abuse neglect in the United States would be advantageous.


Child protective services is a complex system of assessments, investigations and conclusions. A simple understandable overview of these services comes from a United States Department of Health and Human Services manual discussing child protection services


Child Protective Services (CPS) is the central agency in each community’s child abuse and neglect service delivery system; it is responsible for ensuring that preventive, investigative and treatment services are available to children and families endangered by child abuse and neglect. As a result, child protective workers must perform a variety of functions when responding to situations of child maltreatment and, such as, play a variety of roles throughout their involvement with child protective clients. Reporting a suspected case of child maltreatment to the local child protective service agency (or a family member’s own request for help with the problem) initiates the CPS response process. Once the intake and investigative processes and the initial assessment and service planning processes are completed, the stage is set for implementation of ongoing services. (1)


This description of the process of child protective services (For the remainder of the paper child protective services will be referred to as CPS) sounds acceptable and workable. However, an increasing number of child abuse and neglect cases have presented themselves in recent years (Waldfogel). As Jane Waldfogel writer for Child Welfare, points out, “About three million children were reported to the CPS in 17, a more than fourfold increase over the number reported just 0 years earlier.” In our society today, with increased violence and agitation the number has risen dramatically again. As Bagley and Mallick, renowned social psychologists and intellects, point out to support this theory, “Caseloads of child protection workers increased dramatically in response to widespread concerns about CSA (child sexual abuse)” (0). In consensus with Bagley and Mallick, a U.S. Newswire via Comtex states that, “The number of children coming into the child welfare system remain at unacceptably high levels because of substance abuse, poverty, joblessness, housing, and other social problems.” This increasingly high number of reports turning into caseloads for social workers has combated the effectiveness of the above CPS process. The high number of caseloads per social worker ratio is driving down the original intended purpose of CPS. A reform to the initial program is in order to accommodate the new dilemmas. As Jane Waldfogel agrees, “Children at risk are not being adequately protected, and they and their families are not receiving the services that they need.” She goes on to discuss a meeting of the National Association of Public Child Welfare Administration in 188. During this meeting, child welfare professionals concurred that the CPS system needed immense change. Two avenues that were presented were, “An expanded voluntary/preventive family support system, and an adequately funded child well-being system” (Waldfogel).


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The services that are in need more often than not get overlooked and not accomplished. For example, here is a fictitious scenario of the more and more prevalent situations occurring daily in CPS. A report has been issued by someone outside or inside the family and an investigation ensues. The social worker put on the case has his or her hands already completely tied with an overload of cases as proved prior in this paper. Even though the CPS has a system to supposedly prevent this from occurring called the specialization of roles, the outcome seems to still be non-productive (United States ). The specialization of roles is a breakdown of duties with in a CPS agency where a social worker will only be assigned one duty such as investigating, case managing or ongoing services. This separation or specialization of roles is supposed to, “improve the quality of service provided, increase job satisfaction, and reduce worker burnout” (United States ). This specialization of role technique has failed because of a system growing out of its boundaries. To continue, the caseworker of a CPS agency is responsible to respond to all allegations. If upon investigation, there is evidence of abuse and neglect the case gets registered and remains open for long or longer-term CPS care. If upon investigation, there is not enough evidence towards accepting the case or the evidence is not entirely grotesque or obvious, the child’s report of abuse and neglect will be tossed aside and disposed of.


A big reason on why these seemingly less aggressive case accusations get disposed of or overlooked is because the child welfare system is overloaded.


As L. Davies, et al. authors for Social Work Education, points out, “In the sphere of the formal child welfare system, attention is increasingly focused on assessing only the most extreme and obvious cases of abuse and neglect to ensure the protection of children at greatest risk” (6 � 64). Formal child welfare, in more recent times, has become more narrowed in its’ approach to child protection from the reason that was discussed earlier in this paper, an influx of child abuse and neglect accusations. This higher caseload situation is then compounded with reduced resources and a lack of support for both families and workers (Davies, et al. 6). This cycle is seemingly vicious and detrimental to the children and families involved, as can be envisioned.


To reinforce the above statements, Jane Waldfogel cites a study by Kamerman and Kahn concluding that, “the states were so overwhelmed by their child protective responsibilities that they were unable to provide either quality child protection or child welfare services.” Another reason accusations of child abuse and neglect are seemingly more and more dismissed, other than the fact of high caseload average is “the often inexperienced front-line workers” (Davies, et al. 64). This inexperience is also compounded with a “near total disappearance of supervision and support” (64). These two factors feed off each other to each detriment and both gnaw on the lack of resources. Again, it is this vicious no-end cycle.


To keep in discussion with the above, social workers can also flat out ignore accusations of child abuse and neglect. As discussed by Bagley and Mallick, “Another way for social workers to cope is to ignore many referrals, only accepting those which fit perceptions of what is an important or deserving case. In the U.S. today some 40 per cent of allegations of child sexual abuse made to social workers are not investigated further” (1).


These selections of the most grotesque cases should not be the way CPS operates. Reform for this selection problem needs to be solved from the beginning, the government allocation situation. The increase in funding would in turn provide more social workers, more training for the social workers, and better and more community-based services that would unify the child welfare system. These changes, beginning with more government money would provide for a smoother running productive CPS machine.


To concur with the issues at hand facing CPS from the above paragraphs some of the same troubling issues arose at a council of intellectuals with knowledge and experience in the child welfare system. They came to discuss issues about CPS and how it is in need of reform. This council of intellects was called the Executive Session on Child Protective Services and convened at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government in 14 (Waldfogel). One of the observations that was made that correlates with CPS social workers overlooking cases is overinclusion. This means that, “Some families that are currently in the system should not be. Inappropriately included lower-risk families receive an unnecessary adversarial response from the child welfare system, while children who are at serious risk get less attention than they deserve and are therefore not adequately protected” (Waldfogel). Another observation that goes hand in hand with overinclusion is underinclusion. This simply means that some families that should receive CPS don’t. “These include some families that are missed by reporters, some that are known to reporters but are not referred for help (or that would accept help on a voluntary basis) but do not receive help because they have not yet crossed the line into serious abuse and neglect” (Waldfogel). Another conclusion that was agreed upon was the problem of capacity. The number of cases has far outgrown the capacity of CPS social workers to serve them appropriately. This is apparently not a new problem but, “an increasingly severe one.” “The number of child abuse and neglect reports has grown tremendously over the past 0 years; the reported cases also have become tougher” (Waldfogel). Yet, another conclusion of CPS issues by the Executive Session is one of service delivery. This means that families and the children involved are not getting the right type of service in a timely manner. “Service delivery tends to be uneven across communities.” As well as, “Families often have multiple and overlapping problems, but services for them tend to be fragmented and delivered in separate locations by different professionals” (Waldfogel). This problem reinforces the suggestion of creating a more holistic approach to CPS by incorporating more and better community-based programs to better completely serve the families and the children involved in abuse and neglect cases. One final conclusion the board of CPS professionals came up with is the issue of service orientation. “The basic orientation of the CPS system may not be right for some families in the system. CPS’ dual mandate-to protect children and to preserve families-has led to tensions within the system about which goal is and should be preeminent. CPS has had trouble finding the right balance between these competing goals, and has tended to adopt a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach, which ill serves families whose needs may vary and change over time” (Waldfogel). This too reinforces the notion that a more holistic approach is needed to ‘rebalance’ the CPS system and to curb the increasing number of child abuse and neglect cases.


From what was discussed above, the CPS system is in dire need of more community-based systems. As Waldfogel points out, “Instead of CPS acting alone to address problems of child protection, CPS would develop partnerships with a broad range of community agencies, such as police, schools, and public and private agencies, and informal sources of help, such as neighborhood associations, congregations, and families themselves.” This idea of integrating many sources to provide a complete holistic treatment plan seems to be the most proactive avenue. Jane Waldfogel goes on to say that the way to incorporate these systems depends on the, “seriousness of the family’s case, the need for authoritative state intervention to protect the children, and the need for other types of interventions to protect the children and promote their well-being.”


Community support can alleviate many stressors on families and improve the waning formal child protective services. An example of a community-based program that is currently running and promoting excellent services to families and children is the Albany Teen Center (Davies et al. 66). This center offers a large selection of services including “a school program, a nursery, health promotion including a nurse on staff, individual counseling, discussion and support groups, housing assistance, collective meal preparation, clothing and equipment exchange, emergency supplies of food, formula, diapers, bus tickets as well as respite childcare” (66). This center is an exceptional but tangible example of other avenues to incorporate into the CPS realm of support. All of the above services are carried out in a loving nurturing environment with practical assistance compliant to the families and children’s needs. The staff members do not appear as professional as CPS social workers but are all very qualified having many years experience and expertise in social service issues. This appearance also benefits the relationship between the client and the employee by bridging the gap and yearning for a more family atmosphere.


Another great aspect of this center is that it is voluntary. The families or mothers, and their children are not required by law to seek help there so by going on their own volition, the Albany Teen Center has a high success rate of reestablished healthy families.


The Albany Teen Center is a key unifying institution that helps to balance child protective services and the social workers case loads. When the need arises to contact CPS because of an abuse and neglect issue, it happens in an already established positive atmosphere that has trust between the client and employee. As one Albany Teen Center staff member illustrates


One of the advantages we have over CAS (Children’s Aid Society) is that people are in their natural humor when they come here; they are relaxed and comfortable, and they get into groups that talk about relationships issues; they get into the nursery and we see them interact with their kids. And once they come in more regularly and feel comfortable, they establish relationships and talk about stuff. (67).


The Children’s Aid Society is the formal CPS facility in that area and the two work productively hand-in-hand. As one Albany staff member reiterates, “We do the documentation for CAS. […] But we also offer a lot here. […] There are things that bind us together with CAS and these families” (6). Saying that, the Albany Teen Center plays an important role in the system of child protection.


A disturbing issue that seems to be the number one deterrent on why CPS is not propelling forward out of the black hole that it is in is the lack of federal money. The lack of federal funds is also why community-based programs have a hard time prospering and growing. As Mark E. Courtney, Ph.D. and an affiliate at the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin, states that, “Federal funding for child protection investigations, prevention programs, and treatment services is more limited, and expenditures have not risen apace with reports of maltreatment” (88). This sad but true story depicts the broken cycle of the federal government’s budget allocation system. This broken cycle also reflects the government’s unwillingness to care for the nations population and their welfare. For example, in fiscal year 00, the total federal government budget allocation for child welfare services which encompasses community-based centers, education, training, and administration expenses was 75, 571 million dollars (United States, 004 5). Relatively speaking, the military budget for the year 00 according to Howard Zinn, a renowned historian and social activist, was 00 to 400 billion dollars (68). To help put into perspective how much money this really is, Howard Zinn goes on to say, “It was estimated by the World Health Organization that a small portion of the American military budget, if given to the treatment of tuberculosis in the world, could save millions of lives” (68). A portion of that money could also save millions of abused and neglected children’s lives as well. Obviously, there needs to be some fundamental changes in how our federal government perceives the value of lives for anything to radically shift in a positive direction. As a U.S., Newswire points out, “As we ensure security in our homeland, we must also ensure that our homes and communities are safe from abuse and neglect” (Comtex). This comment is absolutely agreeable and if complied with, changes in the future will occur and the downward spiral of CPS will end.


The horror stories of children falling through the cracks because of a lack of support and cooperative functioning between CPS and community-based programs as well as the lack of federal government money are common . The stories of these kids are phenomenally terrifying. For example, a boy named David. David was months old. “He weighed 1 pounds, 4 ounces and when found, he was covered with bruises, had months-old fractures and at least bite marks.” (Miller, et al.). He died on February 1, 000.


“Natalie Gomez-Perez, , of Kissimmee, Florida was beaten by her mother’s boyfriend, her spleen ‘hit so hard that blood was forced out’” (Miller, et al.).


Tony Bragg Jr., just months old, died of a blow that tore his heart. His father threw him into a utility closet and left him to die” (Miller, et al.).


These cases, though severe are not rare by any means. These are simply the effects of, “bureaucratic failure” (Miller, et al.). The United States of America is one nation under god, indivisible, under liberty and has justice for all. Those words are said in institutions all over the United States with confidence and truthfulness. That phrase, under liberty and justice for all, is it true? From research and history, the truthfulness of liberty and justice seem to be waning. Child protective services is a wonderful system and it dueled up with community-based programs is a double success. However, the only feasible way to incorporate the two are by money. The largest company in America with money is the federal government and the budget allocation for the child welfare system as far as Washington is concerned, is minimal to the child welfare systems reported needs.


The only way I can foresee to change this monumental problem is to get the word out. People need to be aware of this situation so the federal government will become aware of this problem. The child protective services will ultimately implode and be wiped out if financial help is not applied.


The only true factor holding productive reform work up is money. Money is the key to child protective services and community-based programs uniting. Money is the only element holding back the hiring of more social workers that are qualified. Money is the single deterrent to why there is a huge problem in overloaded caseworkers. Child protective services needs financial aid to be able to spread the work load amongst numerous employees to resist further negative reports of abuse and neglect and to climb out of this black hole they’ve been put in by the federal government. It is a tragedy that the United States government refuses to acknowledge this problem and continues the practice of turning the other cheek.


To comply with what was stated above, the purpose of this paper was to get the word out to the population and hopefully sooner than later, get the attention of the United States federal government.








Works Cited


Bagley, Christopher and Kanka Mallick, eds. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult


Offenders New Theory and Research. Aldershot, England Ashgate, 1.


Comtex. “Child Welfare League of America Releases State Surveys Highlighting


Status of the Nation’s Children, Crisis Faced by Child Welfare System.” US


Newswire 5 Mar. 00. General Reference Center. InfoTrac. Lafayette


Public Library, Lafayette, CO. 5 Mar. 00.


Courtney, Mark E. “The Costs of Child Protection in the Context of Welfare


Reform.” The Future of Children Protecting Children from Abuse and


Neglect. 8.1 (18) 88-10.


Davies, L., et al. “Beyond the State Conceptualizing Protection in Community


Settings.” Social Work Education 1 (00) 6 � 6. Academic Search


Premier. Ingenta Select. Auraria Library, Denver. 18 Feb. 00.


Miller, Carol Mabin, Manny Garcia and Joseph Tanfani. “At Least 7 Children have


Died in Florida Child-Welfare System Last Five Years, Miami Herald


Investigation Shows.” Knight Ridder Newspapers 6 Nov. 00 K.


General Resource Center. InfoTrac. Lafayette Public Library, Lafayette, CO.


5 Mar. 00.


United States. Budget of the U.S. Government. Washington GPO, 004.


United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Child Protection Providing


Ongoing Services. Washington GPO, 180.


Waldfogel, Jane. “Reforming Child Protective Services.” Child Welfare 7.1


(000) 15,4. Academic Search Premier. InfoTrac. Lafayette Public


Library, Lafayette, CO. 5 Mar. 00.


Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. New York HarperCollins,


00.


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Music in Schools

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Music in Our Schools


Plato once said, “Music gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to


the imagination…and life to everything.” It is important for every student to receive a


worthwhile education. We all agree that basic subjects such as mathematics, history,


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science, and language are very important parts of the curriculum, but most tend to forget


about another important part music education. Music is a very important part of every


student’s education. According to the Music Educator’s Journal, beginning more than


150 years ago, the importance of music in America’s schools was emphasized by the


efforts of what many call “the Father of Music Education”, Lowell Mason. Lowell


Mason was certainly one of the most effective advocates for public school music


education. Music should not be viewed as just an extracurricular activity. Today, I


would like to talk about why music should be considered a very important part of the


education curriculum at all of America’s schools and why funding is just as important for


music programs as it is for sports and other activities.


Music should be considered a very important part of the education curriculum program at all of America’s schools. Lowell Mason believed that music was a gift from God and that it had to be nourished in education in order to reach the rest of the world. He played a very important part in getting music education recognized as an important part of a child’s education throughout the United States. The College Board identifies the arts as one of the six basic academic subject areas students should study in order to succeed in college. Arts education also brings together varied cultural and diverse ethnicity, thereby expanding the walk of every classroom. The great thing about music is that it benefits the students in all of their classes. Music is about communication, creativity, and cooperation, and by studying music in school, students have the opportunity to build on these skills and experience the world from a new perspective.


Another benefit to having music education in schools is that music unites both hemispheres of the brain, allowing it to focus more clearly and therefor making learning easier for the students. According to Carol Pemberton, the left hemisphere of the brain analyzes the structure of music, while the right hemisphere focuses on the melody. Any teaching strategy, such as music, that integrates the functions of both hemispheres makes learning easier, faster, and more fun. The hemispheres of the brain work together when emotions are stimulated, attention focused, and motivation heightened. The great concentration required by music students allows the students to have a better chance of learning and retaining information in all of their classes. According to the 14 Gallup Survey, music in the classroom also reduces stress, increases productivity, regulates energy, and creates a relaxed, supportive learning environment.


Although music is an apparently important part of schools in America and important to the students involved in the music classes, many music programs are lost due to government mandated funding cuts. Many schools elect to spend the money that they have on other things, mainly sports, instead of educational music programs. In communities across the country, school-funding legislation is making the difference in whether local schools are able to offer an effective music program or even if they offer one at all. Lack of funds, lost teachers, and shorter days are forcing administrators to make students choose between band, choir, and classes other than music. The 14 Gallup survey indicated that % of respondents agreed that music is part of a well-rounded education, 86% felt all schools should offer instrumental music as part of the regular curriculum, and 85% believe communities should provide financial resources to help these programs. Although music programs are being cut, there are still things that we can do to help prevent their disintegration. A letter-writing campaign in the Jefferson County School District, the largest in Colorado, contributed to the reversal of a proposed cut of instrumental music programs, according to the Music Educator’s Journal. The journal also stated that the signature drive that began last September and ended in late February accumulated nearly a quarter of a million signatures. The drive sought to demonstrate the unrecognized national support for music education. When a group of people come together to work towards saving music programs, it is unbelievable the amount of power that they can have. Simply getting several thousand people to sign a petition in favor of music education has the power to keep music education in our schools. It is still possible to save and reinstate music programs in our schools if we would just stand up and speak out for what we think is important for our children and their futures.


In conclusion, I hope you realize the need to keep music education in our schools and will continue the fight against budget cuts that rob our children of intelligence, culture, and the development they need to function successfully in society. Just remember what T.S. Elliot once said; “You are the music while the music lasts.”





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Discrimination against Latinos.

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It has been said that our destiny is unpredictable, and that often we must make decisions that will help us in the future. To make the decision to leave your country and to begin a new life in a different one, is very complicated and is also influenced by several factors. Like your family, living with them and sharing, seeing each other on the weekends, and


and unexpectedly leaving them, its very hard to deal with. Also the school you used to go, your classmates, your friends, the environment, the society. Trying to adapt myself to a new country, a new city have been undoubtedly my biggest challenge for the past couple of years. I was only fifteen when I decided to come here but I didn’t realize at that moment the consequences of my decision. During my first two years here I learned about different cultures, how to understand them, interact with them and respect them. I also learned about how different educational systems could work to help students and achieve their goals. The adaptation process I went through had changed me very much.


When I first came here, I was impressed by the quantity of ethnicities living in this city. I had never seen so many different cultures working all together. My mother told me certain things about the population but I never thought there was more than twenty different cultures. I started to understand why so many people move to Los Angeles. It is a city where people can achieve their goals, improve their economic situation, to raise their kids, to work hard and save money for their families and to fulfill their yearning.


Los Angeles is an enormous city in comparison to the city where I grew up. Where I grew up the place was very peaceful, there was no noise, no transit, and I used to feel very comfortable because of the environment. People is more social in my country, they try to help each other on what they can. An interesting fact about all the people coming here is that they become too individualist, they just worry about their own business. They just care for themselves and not for others.


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Sometimes I used to get mad at people at certain places because I look Hispanic, dark skin, black hair, dark eyes, and they thought I was Mexican ,from Salvador or some central American country. I used to tell them that I was from Costa Rica and that theres a big difference in cultures. But their face automatically changed as soon as I told them I was from Costa Rica. Some of them told that is a beautiful place, very clean, that we really know how to treat people, that our people is honest, descent, that theres no war. But I remembered sometimes if they knew you were from another central american country or Mexico their reaction was very different. When I experienced that I thought and learn about the consequences you can face because of people like this. Generalizing is one of the worst errors that we can commit. I learned that people should always have respect toward others and not to judge because of what others of the same culture have done,. We are all different persons, we all think different, so there’s no reason why we should be comparing to other people. All human beings deserve respect and if we don’t feel that we are been respected, relations with other people will be frustrating.


Another interesting fact of my adaptation here was school. I’ve always been in private schools in Costa Rica because the education you get there is very high in comparison to the public ones, but when I came here I couldn’t afford one in here. As soon as I got here, two weeks later I was going to school. I enrolled at Warren High School, I was living there at the time. I just spent there about a month but I learned about American schools and their educational system, which is different from ours. I remember I had American friends in Costa Rica and they used to tell me that high school in here was very easy. The first thing I noticed was that classes. I was used to take up to seventeen different subjects every week. There were subjects that we took it just once a week, every class had a different schedule from every day. In Los Angeles you only take six periods a day, and the same classes every day for the whole semester. Another main difference was that schools in here have tracks, not all of them, but the ones in downtown do. In Costa Rica we used to go to school starting the second week of February with vacation of two weeks in July and until December the fifteen. It was almost the whole year at school so that is a good advantage in here. I also noticed that there are requirements as usual to graduate but there other classes that you’re not forced to take. In Costa Rica you have no options, you can’t decide, you have to take every single subject they give you, and I think the method they use in here is very efficient because there are times when you don’t want to take certain subjects, like Christian Education, music, and others. Another interesting fact I noticed is that in here you could be on a class with that is supposed to be for seniors, you could be with juniors and even sophomores, and that’s very interesting, is just different from my country. In Costa Rica the classes that are for seniors are only for seniors and nobody could attend that class. Students are not mixed. There are sections for each group of students. For example if there were two hundred senior students, they divided them into groups, like 1-1, 1-, and so on so the whole section had the same schedule and it never change during the year. There’s no way you can drop a class, that doesn’t exist. In my school everything was in English so there’s no difference on that. Schools in my country are small, the most students they could have is up to two thousand.


When I was attending high school I didn’t know about people, I thought they were just regular students just like in my country but they turned out to be really different. They were very individualist too, and you don’t really get to know your classmates. I didn’t know anything about gangs, we don’t have such a thing in my country. I had some confrontations with them because I was a new student, and sometimes I was shy, I didn’t talk much with people. I learned about the schools, I learned about their system, the education, about students, I learned that you have careful with people like this and that is possible to deal with everyone, you just have to learn how, find the way and interact with them as much as you can.





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Song Of Myself

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Introduction


Song of Myself is a vision of the symbolic “I” enraptured by senses, vicariously embracing all people and places. (“I” is universal, a part of the Divine)


Song of myself is not only a voice, then; it is a voice that cannot stop singing, delighted with its own fullness, plunging into its unuttered future. The poems’ present tense is so reckless and hurried (“I speak at every hazard… without check”) that is seems to have no past, no memory; this is to say, the poem is not about anything, any more than life is about something. It is simply happening; it is about itself.


“Song of myself” is the record of his struggle to become himself.


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Whitman is representative of all humanity because, he says, the voices of diverse people speak through him, voices of men, animals, and even insects. To him, all life is a miracle of beauty. Whitman is the voice of all humanity.


His vision of humanity embraces the person and the natural world. Song of Myself is a bridge, spanning the divides of time, to bring us in touch with our own intimate humanity.


Divinity in Simple things


Just Like Whitman saw divinity in common things, such as grass, I see value, and meaning in simple things. I, too, appreciate the simple pleasures as well � clouds, tulips, a gentle breeze, being all wrinkly after spending an entire afternoon in the pool.


Grass is the central symbol of “Song of Myself” and it represents the divinity contained in all things. The poet’s journey and quest for selfhood have now come full circle. He began by desiring to loaf on the grass and ends by bequeathing himself “to the dirt to grow from the grass I love.”


Even the most commonplace objects, such as ants, leaves, stones, contain the infinite universe.


Grass is symbolic of the ongoing cycle of life present in nature, which assures each man of hi immortality. Nature is an emblem of God, for God’s eternal presence is evident everywhere. Grass is the key to the secrets of man’s relationship with the Divine. It indicates that God is everything and everything is God.


Section 6-8


Whitman’s senses convince him that there is significance in everything no matter how small. 1- contain a catalog of the infinite wonders in small things.


Whitman shares the Romantic poet’s relationship with nature. To him, as to Emerson, nature is divine and an emblem of God. The universe is not dead matter, but full of life and meaning. He loves the earth, the flora, the fauna, the moon and the stars, the sea, and all other elements of nature. He believes that man and nature should never be disjoined.


Death


Unlike Whitman, I know that my time on this earth is limited. For this reason, the song of myself is my motivation, my passions. The song of myself is what gets me out of bed every morning because it tells me to live my life. It holds the beat of my life � something legato, sometime staccato. If we knew that our lives would be forever eternal, and we will be reincarnated time and time again, how can we ever appreciate our lives? It is only because we know it will come to an end, that we can fully enjoy certain pleasures � being able to do those things you want to do before you die.


For Whitman, there is no death, for man is reincarnated time and time again. Eternity is time endless, as is the self.


Whitman is not afraid of death because death, too, is a creation of God and through it one may reach God.


Section 6-1


What is the grass? The poet feels incapable to answering the question but continues thinking about it. Muses that perhaps the “grass is itself a child” or the “handkerchief of the Lord”. Here, the grass is a symbol of the divinity latent in the ordinary, common life of man and it is also a symbol of the continuity inherent in the life-death cycle. No one really dies. Even the “smallest sprout shows there is really no death,’ that “all goes onwards and outward…./And to dies is different from what any one supposed.”


Contemplating the meaning of grass in terms of mystical experience, he understands that all physical phenomena are as deathless as the grass.


Whitman assures us that death is not to be feared but anticipated as a stepping stone to rebirth


The smallest sprout shows there is really no death, and if ever there was it led forward life, and does not wait at the end to arrest it, and ceased the moment life appeared. And to die is different from what any one supposed, and luckier.


Whitman deals with death as a fact of life. Death is a fact, but life in death is a truth for Whitman.


Individual (the Self) and the Universe


To Whitman, the complete self is both physical and spiritual. The self is man’s individual identity, his distinct quality and being, which is different from the selves of other men, although it can identify with them. The self is a portion of the one Divine soul.


important themes the idea of self, and the poet’s relationship with the elements of nature and the universe. The self comprises ideas, experiences, psychological states, and spiritual insights.


To Whitman, the self is both individual and universal. Man has an individual self, whereas the world, has a universal self. The poet wishes to maintain the identity of his individual self, and yet he desires to merge it with the universal self, which involves the identification of the poet’s self with mankind and the mystical union of the poet with God, the Absolute self.


Sec 1-5


He is determined to maintain his own individuality.


Sec 5 � the poet’s ecstatic revelation of union with his soul. He has a feeling of fraternity and oneness with God and his fellowmen “And I know that the hand of God is the promise of my own, and I know that the spirit of God is the brother of my own.” This union brings him peace and joy.


Sec 6-16 describe the awakening of the poet’s self to his own universality.


Sec7 � signifies his universal nature, which he finds “just as lucky to die” as to be born. The poet is part of everyone around him. He sees all and condemns nothing. Sec 8-16 is a catalog of all that the poet sees � people of both sexes, and all ages and conditions, in many different walks of life, in the city and the country, by the mountain and by the sea. He even sees animals. The poet not only loves them all, he is a part of them all.


“and these tend inward to me, and I tend outward to them, and such as it is to be of these more or less I am, and of these one and all I weave the song of myself.”


Section 0-5


He accepts all life, naked and bare, noble and ignoble, refined and crude, beautiful and ugly, pleasant and painful.


He feels like he is part of all that he has met and seen.


He is the poet of pleasure and pain, of man and woman, and of good and evil.


“I am not the poet of goodness only, I do not decline to be the poet of wickedness as well.” These two qualities compliment each other.


Life is neither chaotic not finite; instead, it is harmonious, reflecting the union of the poet’s individual soul with the Divine Soul.


4-6, he identifies himself with every person, dead or living, and relates his involvement with the various phases of American history. Realizing his relationship to all this makes him feel, as he states in 8, “replenish’d with supreme power, one of an average unending procession.”


Ordinary life becomes permeated with mystical significance.


He identifies with every being and every object, and this identification forms an integral part of his concept of what ‘I” am. The process of identification arises out of the belief that the poet’s soul is a part of the universal soul and therefore should seek union with it.


The poet asks man not to be “curious about God” because God is everywhere and in everything “In the faces of men and women I see God, and in my own face in the glass.”


He speaks for America and identifies himself with all


I am old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise, Regardless of others, ever regardful of others, maternal as well as paternal, a child as well as a man.


Throughout the catalogues, there is a dual purpose, to display diversity, and to create unity from the diversity. Sec 15 � in each of these lines, Whitman expresses the essence of the individual. Then, he brings all the individuals into a poetic whole - Whitman can create an actual whole from the diversity of America.


Transition to my song


Writing precludes an immediate communal experience. Writing puts each reader into his own private study, and so the “truth” of “Song of Myself” becomes fragmented in solipsistic, idiosyncratic interpretations beyond the author’s control.


In section 46, Whitman launches himself on the “perpetual journey” � urging all to join him, but giving the warning that “Not I, not anyone else can travel that road for you, You must travel it for yourself.”


--- use this as intro to my paper, and my transition into my own song. I must travel that road myself, and carry my own tune.


Kristin’s song


My song doesn’t keep a steady beat or rhythm. My song isn’t even in a particular key or major. My song is practically unknown to anyone else except myself. My song, however, is my #1 single. My song is what wakes me up in the morning, and keeps me going. This is the Song of Myself


I am going to keep marching to my own beat, and singing to my own tune. This is because the song of myself is the music of my heart.


Like Whitman, the song of himself, isn’t an actual song � it’s the integration of all the wonderful things around him, which he “weaved together to form the song of himself” � or the tune to which he moves, the beat to which he marches, and the theme song to which he lives his life.





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“Being Gay, Coming Out”

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“Being Gay, Coming Out”


Gendered Expectations


“You can’t play with He-man, he’s not for girls!” This phrase still echoes in my mind as I reminisce about my childhood playtime. As I reached for a He-man action figure from the toy box, I was handed a Barbie doll or a My Little Pony figurine. At that time, I was too young to realize the great chasm that gender had created for such a simple task as playing with toys. However, looking back, it becomes clear that gender, itself, plays a key role in the everyday lives of boys and girls.


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From my experiences with the He-man doll, one can deduce a certain boundary line for activities between girls and boys. By having shared interests, girls and boys contribute to the “act of gender”. Although there is not overwhelming support, boys find it more rewarding to interact and play with boys, and girls to interact and play with girls, also girls more often gravitate to housekeeping corners and doll-play, and boys to the area with large blocks and toy cars. Because girls enjoy the same activities as other girls, and boys enjoy the same activities as other boys, a boundary for gender is marked. In choosing to play with a He-man doll, I crossed this boundary. I shouldn’t have tried to play with the He-man doll and acted like a boy. However, it is still considered “OK” for me to act like a boy because I was still young.


Over the life course, peers and society will act differently about the way female and males are “suppose” to act as age goes on. When teenage girls try to dress like a tomboy, other teenagers will look down; laugh at them as well as talking bad about them in front of their face. In addition to that, if a teenage boy tries to dress like a girl or even has a girly voice, he would get many looks and attention from his peers. His peers would be thinking that he’s weird and the “gay” word will come out of their mouths. Same as adults, as a man acting girly will consider as being gay but other adults would not care or even spend the time to analyze gay people. If a straight man passes a gay man on the street, I think that the straight man would just think to himself, “Oh he’s gay, no big deal,” and if a woman is holding hands with another woman, and a third party which is also a woman passed both of them on the street, that woman will think “oh, they’re lesbians” and continue to walk away. I think that society has put standards on all the different ages in being “gay,” it is considered wrong when teenage boys act girly and teenage girls acting tomboyish but it is normal for kids and adults to act “gay.”


According to Goffman, I think the Stigma of characteristic fits the best of being homosexual. This stigma exposes homosexual to society, to the world of the unknown. This stigma violates the norm because it blemishes the individual character within them. However, lately on television, it finally exposes to society that it is okay to be homosexual. The TV show, Will and Grace shows an excellent example of this because this show displays the acceptance of gays to people that consider homosexuality to be wrong and immoral. If the TV says it is okay to be gay, then it must be.


I think that it is best for people who are willing to let other people know they are gay because they’re expressing their individualities to other people in the society. However, they’re definitely going to face the judgments of misperception of family members, relatives, friends and most of all, the community.


Heterosexual-ness


Sexual orientation has been and to some degree is still seen as a taboo topic. For many years it has been argued that sexual orientation is based on ones gender and ones sexual preference, should be based on ones sex. Society has set the standards of females should only be attracted to males and males to females since these narrow views were considered to be the “norm.” However, hidden within society was a lifestyle that once aired was seen as deviant. Homosexuality and many sexual orientations were seen as sexual deviancy that needed some type of treatment to cure.


Society is obsessed with finding what determines one sexual orientation, if an individual is homosexual or bisexual. Surprising, society is not really fascinated why heterosexuals are straight. Straight people do not come out because our society assumes that people are straight unless they say that they are not.


With the assumption of everyone should be heterosexual, it is quite offensive and disrespectful towards the homosexual community. A large sector of the population fails to realize how difficult coming out might be for homosexuals to their family and friends. Family and friends may react either negatively or positive towards the needs. Consequently many gay, lesbian and bisexual people hide their sexual orientation from family and friends. In the process, they may feel isolated, scared, guilt or depressed.


I think that no one ever speaks up of their homosexuality especially in junior high and high school. College, perhaps; pride events are more easily seen then, but in high school no one speaks up. Imagine dearly loving someone else and having to keep it totally secret because if you dont you will be punished -- cast out of your home by your family, ostracized by your friends, perhaps losing your job. This is the world of the lesbian and gay young person.


As they recognize that they are different and discriminated against, they lose self esteem and become depressed. Many become suicidal and develop a feeling of extreme depression and helplessness. Those who dont commit suicide live an adolescence of silence and oppression, rarely being able to speak up without being struck down by peers.


As homosexual youth mature and begin to develop adult relationships, they must integrate their feelings and attitudes into their normal life. I think they also usually overcome most of the homophobia that they grew up with. Often a part of the integration of growing up is that the person is able to stop focusing on their own homosexuality, becoming more open to same sex and opposite sex relationships without thinking about whether their homosexuality is showing or not. Homosexual people in this stage have begun to really be able to accept themselves without feeling obsessive or afraid of issues surrounding homosexuality. The details vary between people, but the overall change is toward self acceptance and comfortableness within society. This change is needed for proper social interactions, with friends and lovers. It most often happens in the late teens and early adulthood, because a lot of self inspection and independence occur then.


Consequences of “coming out”


It is considered healthy for lesbians and gay men to come out and live outside of the closet. However, parents tend to react with shock, disappointment, and shame when they learn of a sons or daughters gay sexual orientation. Disclosure often precipitates a painful family crisis, which can lead to cutoffs between members. For a variety of reasons, some parents may never be able to have relationships with their openly gay, adult children, and will sever all ties when their son or daughter comes out.


But when it comes to the end, I think the reaction of both mother and father will be different if they find out their children are “gay.” . In general, they’re going to have to accept it but they do not want to accept the reality of their children being deviant. I think parents have higher expectations of their sons than their daughters; to them it is both unacceptable to be gay but when it comes down to it, it is more unacceptable for males to act and be feminine while it is better off for females to be masculine because they believe that is easier for girls to straighten out and act feminine than boys changing from feminine to masculine.


Some of my reluctance to accept that people are gay came from a concern about how gays are treated by society. With all parents, they want their son or daughter to be happy, to achieve whatever he/she needs for self-fulfillment, to travel as easy a road as possible. As lesbians, most of them constantly having to hide their true self, of being forced to lie, or, if she was totally out, of being harassed, oppressed, discriminated against. No parents want that for their child. At the point of my acknowledgement of lesbianism, through lack of understanding, thought people had chosen this path, that people had the option of being a lesbian, or not. In some ways it might have been easier to understand, and thus accept, if it had been their choice. I think that the stereotypes people grow up with were just that stereotypes that apply to only a very few homosexuals. I came to understand that being gay is not a choice but a biological fact.


Pink Triangle Gayness pride


Personally, I am not against gay people but I do not care for them at all. I view homosexuals as any other person because everybody is the same despite the fact that they like their own gender. Because I don’t have a view on if homosexuality is right or wrong, I don’t think I would wear one of those pink triangle buttons or even put one of those pink triangle bumper stickers on my car. I think that if I did, my family members, friends, relatives or the society would think differently of me or perhaps think that I’m gay.








Please note that this sample paper on “Being Gay, Coming Out” is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on “Being Gay, Coming Out”, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on “Being Gay, Coming Out” will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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