Mind Reaper

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Man lives in a world erected by the stories that he hears, sees and tells. These stories and their messages socialize people into roles of gender, age, class, vocation, and lifestyle. Stories of the American society weave the seamless web of its cultural environment, cultivating most of what people think, what they do, and how they conduct their affairs. This has become an important issue to consider when often what people think, what they do in life situations, and how they generally behave and interact with each other is disconnected from the ethical standards once freely and proudly regarded in the social world. This moral separation is becoming more and more widespread since what is being practiced and encouraged today is not harmonious to the Christian view. Through the irresistible influences of a mass-productive, policy-driven creation, known as the television set, most assumptions about human development and intersocial relations are simultaneously rooted and misinterpreted through its unseemly programs and endless stream of ads1. America and its children are being bombarded and intentionally targeted, day in and day out, with repetitive screenings of violence and aggression, wealth and material possessions as a way of gaining happiness, and deliberate sexual exploits sneaking its way onto the stage and into young, innocent minds. These shameful influences society should strive to avoid are imprudently accepted and audaciously displayed. This is so because scattered groups of distant conglomerates want to gain profit and raise their statistic figures through such material. Television and telecast advertising is the basic source for forming stereotypical and unscrupulous portrayals of reality while shameless movie and advertising producers keep the proceeds of a society morally weakening from the unbridled fabrications of their money-spinning programs.


One must first understand the sole purpose of television and advertising in order to realize how much these production companies care about the well-being of their television viewers. The overriding question within these production companies is, “Will it make money?” Their line of business is solely to sell and make money. If an enterprise will increase profits, then all censorship matters become irrelevant, including the question of whether something is good or bad for television viewers. Their only operative question, therefore, is “Will it be profitable?” These movie producers and media partisans are selling out America and its vulnerable youth members for money. Although most of America is not consciously aware of it, maximizing profit is more important to production companies than asking whether or not something is beneficial or harmful to society and their young ones.


In the meantime, while these so-called honorable businessmen are making a killing off ill-flavored broadcast innovations, society continues to absorb many misconceptions of reality into their consciousness and adopt television’s unavoidable stereotypes; they become not as an individual but as an indistinguishable to a picture they glimpsed on television. Spoken shrewdly by author, Roy F. Fox, from his book Harvesting Minds, these phony representations of reality “serves as a visible reminder of something more serious that’s hidden from view, an internal hemorrhaging of the spirit that seems to afflict children who are held hostage to an endless stream of ads.” Later evidence will overwhelm- ingly indicate that television influences often distort America’s view of social reality. In other words, the media influences what people, essentially kids, think about other types of people and even themselves - how they imagine what others are like, what roles they themselves should play in society, how they communicate with others, and how they treat others. Consensus still remains on several other issues that media have ideological and self-assertive implications, that people usually negotiate and construct meaning from media, and that the media not only can reflect reality but also help create it.


Television, irrefutably, is the chief informant of all these existing attitudes and viewpoints. In fact, television has become necessary for the formation of individual and group identities in society’s new urban environment as all different classes of religion, race and sex try to live together with some degree of cooperation and harmony. People often argue, though, that the media does not create stereotypes, that they merely reflect contemporary society. On the contrary, market researchers will find within sample populations what small numbers of certain people are doing, so that the producers can offer cutting-edge programming. The shows eventually catch on with the viewers and imitators are propagated. Soon everyone will feel as though people are living in sync with these current-day programs. This situation often makes viewers feel alienated because they know that they are not like Seinfeld or the doctors on ER. The popular media characters create the illusion that everyone else is like them, when in fact this cannot be true. One character could not possibly represent millions.


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Another argument is that a single television show, film, or commercial, cannot create stereotypes because only a handful of characters are portrayed. One is forgetting that this argument does not account for the prevalence of media outlets of images, or the way people perceive those images. Nor does it account for the power of symbols or icons. But the image and persona is realistic to most viewers and if a single character or symbol gains enough popularity, that character or symbol soon represents not only all other instances of that type but also the best qualities of that type. Michael Jordan, for example, symbolizes all basketball players and the game of basketball. He embodies the best qualities of the game sportsmanship and skill. When a single character or single symbol represents so much, they cannot escape from becoming a stereotype.


These continual creations of typecasts and venerated icons lead to a much more serious risk at hand. The way in which the media portrays, as mentioned earlier, a way to think and act for almost every state of affairs, a possible solution for that state, and how to deal with environmental relations, including social and personal, can, most definitely, affect viewers’ attitudes toward their everyday living habits and even distort them. “All television is educational. The question is what does it teach?” This statement by Nicholas Johnson, the former head of the Federal Communications Commission, points to the enormous influence television has on society. He says that any discussion of society’s values and the transmission of those values must include an examination of television, which is one of the most powerful, if not, the most powerful voice in America.


Expectedly, television producers will try to arouse powerful emotions in people to get attention to increase popularity, and ultimately make money. Certain things arouse emotions more reliably than others. Among the most reliable, and biggest moneymakers, are violence, sex and humor. Violence stimulates the adrenal gland and arouses viewers. Sexually oriented material stimulates and arouses viewers too. Humor, as well, arouses people with changes in brain chemistry, yet to be deciphered. It is not surprising these are the major themes of television, rather than information or education. For the most part television sticks to themes that sell because selling things is what television is all about. Every moment of television has to be arousing; the goal of television is rarely to educate or to shape values. Therefore, values that are good for America, are not guiding principles for television. America, through the invention of the television, has developed an extremely powerful teacher but the values of the marketplace are driving it into a ditch of muddled priorities and cluttered views. The messages of values from the marketers are increasingly at odds with those values which are important for healthy children and a healthy society.


Establishing that television is, indeed, very powerful, here are some of the values it is promoting to children, adolescents, and adults of all ages. Violence is an animate issue to discuss. Despite what the public says about the evil of violence, though, it is promoted as exciting and glamorous on television. It is often portrayed as the solution to fictional characters’ problems. Media violence tends to breed more media violence, fostering an atmosphere of violence and violent attitudes. In fact, the average American child will witness two hundred thousand acts of violence on television before he or she is eighteen years of age. The Godfather produced twelve corpses, Godfather II put away eighteen, and Godfather III killed no less than fifty-three. The children’s movie glorification of martial arts Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles was the most violent movie film that has ever been marketed to children, with one hundred thirty-three acts of mayhem per hour. The international edition of Variety featured one hundred twenty-three pages of ads for new movies, with pictures of shooting, killing, or corpses on every other page and a verbal appeal to violence. Leading the verbal procession was kill, murder, death, deadly, dead, terror, fatal, lethal and so on. Bringing up the rear were rage, revenge, guncrazy, maniac, warrior, battle, war, shoot, fight, slaughter and blood. The documented correlation between violent entertainment and violent behavior is undeniable. By targeting violent entertainment at young adolescents, society is promoting their violent behavior - the very behavior that America fears. Media provides the language, pictures, sounds, and role models that make it easier for viewers to think and act violently in real life.


The contradictions of society are severely painful as the nation’s concern about violence escalates, the rate of reported crime in the United States is the highest in the industrialized world. As fear of violent crime worsens, educators, politicians, physicians, clergy and parents all decry the violence. Yet while society says they hate it, film and show producers surround their children with it in their daily lives. As individuals, people condemn it; as members of the larger, anonymous society, people love it. Again, back to the operative question of the industry, “Will it make money?” Television producers are paid to create and broadcast shows which make money. They are encouraged to develop programs which raise viewership. If violence and aggression raises viewership, then they will test the bounds of the Federal Communication Commission’s Standards and Practices guidelines to deliver it.


It would be a mistake to think though, that violence is the only problem. Violence grabs the headlines, but violence itself is a result of a society that promotes selfishness, greed, and instant gratification. Consider one fact the average child will receive about forty-five thousand messages about sex from television during their formative years. For example, sexual encounters on soap operas take place between unmarried people ninety-four percent of the time. On prime television, references to sexual activity are generally between unmarried people as well. Forensic psychiatrist, Park Dietz, believes that, with the help of violent activity, “A vulnerable youngster may watch a sexy slasher movie and become conditioned to sexual arousal through such images. When that boy becomes a man in his twenties or thirties, society runs the risk that he will seek sexual gratification through actual, not fantasized, brutality.”4 In addition, sexual activity is often presented in a light, humorous context.


Advertising has traditionally emphasized sexuality and physical appearance to sell products from soft drinks and deodorant to cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. Younger kids are now associating sexuality with such products. Even fifth - and sixth-graders remember commercials for beers and kids may watch more than two thousand beer and wine ads each year. Today, young kids are linking the drinking of beer to romance, sociality and relaxation. Author, Carol Moog, tells how advertising


communicates immature attitudes about sexuality to young people; consequently their definitions and perceptions of sexuality and gender identity become stunted. This prevents both men and women from developing humane and mature gender identities and relationships. Social scientist, Forman, (1) paid great attention to how sex in the movies affected adolescent sexual behavior. Adolescents reported imitation of sex as they had seen in movies. Girls reported that they adopted the flirtatious postures of starlets and that after seeing a sexy movie, they were driven to find men to sleep with, and boys, likewise, claimed that they learned how to kiss and make love from cinema, and some claimed to have been driven to rape5.


Another primary goal of producers of consumer goods and services is to create desires. If a manufacturer or service company can create a new desire, then, before long society may come to think of it as a need. As they try to fill more and more “needs” the market keeps expanding. Hence, according to what kids see on television, the key to happiness is money and the material possessions it buys. They not only get this message in commercials, but in the content of programs themselves. It was touched on earlier that the labeled status of most television characters is significantly above that of most viewers. A hero of a sitcom or local news anchor have things that reflect financial success whether it is the car they drive, the house they live in, or the clothes they wear. As it is with sports heroes too, the best athletes are constantly in the news or advertising something because of their demands for more money. These sports heroes drive the fanciest cars, wear the most expensive clothes, and generally model the life of the wealthy. Of course, kids would want to emulate these top athletes.


Wealth is valued on television because it elicits a response of desire or longing on part of the viewer, so children can easily develop the idea that becoming rich is extremely important to their future happiness. Advertisers try to link products with feelings of happiness. On a subconscious level, the audience is meant to associate happiness with the article or service being sold. These images are a great reinforcement for the commercial messages which teach that happiness is equated with having things. But behind all the thinking, language, attitudes, and behaviors, one may sense an overall materialistic world view - a global conception or internal map that defines and describes the world as a place where goals are achieved and problems are solved through buying and selling, a world that crowds out the life of the body, the mind, and the spirit.5 After all the facts presented, it is not alarmist rhetoric to say that the future is at stake, and this is reality.


It has been made clear through numerous examples that the media is a great and powerful influence to millions of lives as it has gradually brought America to a moral collapse in their standards. In this ethical investigation of telecast propaganda and its distorted definition of quality viewing, the infusion of countless typecasts and vulgar activities, seeped day after day into susceptible minds, has caused society to shift not only in taste and propriety but in virtue and civility. The survival of the American society and of its fundamental values depends on responsible, productive, and generous citizens. Those types of citizens do not just happen - they are guided, nurtured, and raised. The qualities and mannerisms of humanity did not originate from a television tube and the rudiments of human development should not be relied upon television today. Society needs to get reacquainted with its bedrock values and shun the imprudent sermons of telecast marketers. There was a time in human history when life lessons and story-telling was handcrafted, homemade and community inspired. By observation, imitation, and trial and error interactions, mankind, through their fragile years of childhood, gradually learned what was important in life and what was unimportant, what was valued and what was not. If America wishes to preserve the foundations of their society, they have to exercise integrity and virtue by promoting integrity and virtue in their advertising messages. If the future of America is to endure as a free and peaceful democratic society, morality and publicizing sensitivity needs to take precedence over all fruitful objectives and it must be the solid boulder this country situates its feet upon for all generations; society and their children are depending on it.





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Memorandum

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MEMORANDUM


TO Dean Jones


FROM Brittany Graham, Business Instructor


DATE November 4, 00


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RE Plans for improving contacts


MEETING WITH J&M INC.


C I believe that you have some very good ideas about the direction the district should be taking. C You have only been in this position for a short period of time, yet the ideas you have are thoughtful and well developed. C You are a strong leader and you will do many positive things for this school, and district, in the future. SG Mr. Fundy and I agree with you that the school should form a close relationship with J&M Inc. SG As we brainstormed, many of our ideas were the same, or similar, to your ideas. BN However, we came up with several ideas of our own that we feel may be better suited for both parties at present. BN Mr. Fundy mentioned that the technology of the Tele/Center is not the direction his company is going right now. BN He is not willing to share the cost of a program that will not be beneficial to J&M, however Mr. Fundy would like to reach a compromise.


INTERNAL FLAWS


OS I understand that you want the students to be involved in the local industries. OS I also realize that you would like to establish a Tele/Center as a means of shared technology with J&M Inc. SG I believe it would be an excellent idea to have students becoming more involved in the businesses. SG I also think that the computer/telecommunications center is a great idea, in theory. YS Unfortunately, the surrounding companies do not see the potential in the students of Elgin Community College, and those who do are rather indifferent to the possibilities. YS The school needs to find ways to increase the potential of the students and then positively promote the abilities and benefits these students could bring to the companies.


REVISED PLAN


OS I understand that your main goal is to make connections with the local businesses. OS I also understand that you would like to establish a Tele/Center so that both the school, and the local companies would have access to all of the latest technologies. SG I also


believe it is important for the school, and for the district, to form friendly, working relationships with local industries. SG I believe it would be beneficial to the school, and to several companies, to establish a computer/telecommunications center. YS However, J&M is not the company in which that relationship should be established. YS I have an idea of how the school could form a close bond with J&M. YS The outline Mr. Fundy suggested for the revised plan is as follows


~Initiate in house performance appraisal training


~Introduce bonus structures


~Change promotional strategies


~Supervisory Management training


~Sales Management training


YS I feel that this is the appropriate direction to take with J&M.





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Life on the Glabal assembley line

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“Life on the Global Assembly line” looks at how the industrialised nations owe their economic highs to very cheap labor in Third World countries.


This article explores perspectives and concepts like cheap labor, globalisation, consumerism, divisions of labor and gender. These are the main objectives however many more arise throughout the piece. These concepts are all looked through a conflict theorist’s eyes. Globalisation can be defined as ‘the growing interdependence between different people, regions and countries in the world as social and economic relations come to stretch worldwide” (Giddens, pge 60).


Globalisation is a big part of this article. Conflict theorists see globalisation as an inequality, for the countries that it takes over and its people. Globalisation makes the gap between rich and poor countries even wider. Where the economic developments of the West (richer countries) is dependent on exploiting poorer countries by basing their big corporate companies and factories in their country for a much cheaper rate than it would be somewhere in the West.


According to the article, in the United States an assembly line worker would earn between $.10 and $5 an hour, whereas compared with the Third World women they would earn that or even less a day. This being a perfect example of exploitation, not only for the workers but country as well.


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Their monthly wage is more-often than not less then the cost of living (L G A L, pge ), which is the bare minimum. The reasoning for such poor pay is the corporations think what is the point of paying someone $5 an hour when they can get someone else to do the same amount of work in a Third World country for $ a day.


Globalisation is not just an economic issue, it can have social, cultural, political and environmental dimensions to it as well, yet in this article it basically looks more at exploiting the economic sides.


Conflict theorists see globalisation as good for some and not so good for others. Which this article reflects quite explicitly. The corporations are using the countries for its cheap labor and land value. Where they want the best quality workers and giving them no incentives to work for such a poor pay packet. However since they are so desperate for money and work they will take anything and this is what they are taking advantage of. These corporations actually think that they are helping the poorer countries by creating jobs, however all of the profits are going off shore back to the mother country of the creator. Also they are just lowering the stands for these poor people who work so hard for them. These women who were interviewed and many of their co-workers’ health are at risk. Some start the job with 0/0 vision (due to it being a prerequisite) and as time goes on their sight diminishes quite rapidly (LGAL, pge). This another great example of why conflict theorists believe that Globalisation is good for some and not so for others.


According to the Encyclopedia of Sociology divisions of labor is a term used to mean the process by which people come to perform more and more specialised tasks in social life. Therefore each individual is in a way interdependent on each other, yet whoever has a specialised task on which others depend has some degree of power over them and so on. (Key Ideas, pge 7)


This another good example of why it is a conflict theory because it shows the inequalities of the workplace, most of the workers throughout the factories being talked about in this article are being exploited and treated at times inhumanely. Gender is on the same level as divisions of labor, where women are generally a cheaper laborer than compared to a man. Eighty to 0 percent of Third world women perform the lower skilled jobs, which decreased the economic status of women. Whether it is from making Barbie dolls or missile parts it is regarded as “women’s work.” The main reason being in many countries women can still be legally paid less than men. (LGAL pge )


Consumerism is in the scheme of things a reflection on Globalisation. This is where companies are paying their laborers a very minimal amount and the end products that the consumers buy, are sold for a more expensive amount. The implications for this in Australia is when we are the consumer. We have to pay top dollar for a product that most probably did not even cost half the actual selling price.


Really in the long run the owner of the company / corporation is the only one who in fact benefits from this type of Globalisation. Because, we as consumers have to pay so much for a product that would only cost a few dollars to manufacture. The Governments of the Third World countries that the company has overrun, get very little in return, due to the fact that they become quite dependent on the very little profit they make, and when the labor stops being so cheap compared to another Third World country, the company packs up and moves on to the next. So they lose whatever return they were getting and are back to where they started. Not to mention the laborers if the Governments are getting hardly any return how can the people?


When the company moves on the unemployment rate sky rockets, with so many men and women out of jobs. It may be a terrible job, but for some they are proud to earn a income, to put food on the table. Not only would there be unemployment in the less fortunate countries when the companies move out, but also the original country that the company / corporation first originated from. When they realised they could get cheaper labor and land somewhere else, this would have left many workers out of a job and left them with no income. These companies do not think of anyone else, or how it would affect the people involved, like the laborers, or the country that it is situated in. (Beilharz & Hogan pge 11)


Also throughout Australia and other first world countries like America etc. the gap between rich and poor, that was being talked about earlier, is shown again as consumers. Only the people who can afford the expensive products, like brand named clothing and other high-priced products like cars, are more affluent people, the so called rich. And the ones who cannot afford such items are teased and bullied at school or they are looked at strangely down the street for not having the top dollar brands, that cost times more to buy compared to the what it cost to manufacture them. (Giddens pge 6)


How is it fair if children are in the play ground at school, and some are getting ppicked on due to the label on their clothes, if only the bullies parents explained to them where their clothes are coming from, maybe they would cease their terrible behavior. Because their clothes are made by children, over in the Third World, where they are getting paid less then what the bullies would get in pocket money a week.


This article has opened my eyes up about what really is happening in the less fortunate countries. These big companies should be ashamed for the conditions that these people work in and the wages that they receive. We may be economically sound but to what extent can Western countries go? These corporations are not heading to the Third World to help them, but to use them for their cheap labor and less tax. The exploitation and inequality that Globalisation brings to this world is outrageous, no-one know matter what race, religion, or economic status should be put through what the women, men and children go through in the less fortunate countries to earn a living.


The implications that Globalisation brings to this world is not just the Third World but everyone.





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changing roles

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Traditionally, women were believed to be homemakers and child bearers but this belief was changed after World War II. During the war while there was a shortage of men, women were expected to take on men’s jobs at the same time were given freedom and privileges that were only given to men. When the war was over, they were expected to return to there normal roles as housewives, which began the women’s liberation movement.


The goals of women’s liberation movement were to improve women’s living standards and lifestyles including education for girls as they were expected to stay home undertaking house chores. Most girls only went to junior high schools where home science and textiles were the major aspects highlighted, and only few went to university. With basic education, the few women in the workforce were given low paid jobs under poor and dangerous conditions. This initiated the women’s liberation movement, which mainly dealt with the issue of inequality in the workforce and in regards to this, their living conditions. It was expected through the women’s liberation movement that men would change their views about women as being housewives and disapproval of ‘working wife’. They demanded for equal pay for equal work with men, equal choice and opportunities in jobs, better treatment and services for women including childcare facilities. The Australian Industrial Relations Commission granting equal pay for women was the start of women’s equal rights in society.


The Women’s Liberation Movement led by Germaine Greer sent their message out to society by organizing conferences which led to the ACTU Equal Pay Campaign in 16, and books such as “The Female Eunuch”, a famous book in 170 written by Germaine Greer. Greer wrote the book with the belief that it would encourage women to stand up for their rights and be independent. This motivated women in organizing meetings which led to street marches, running of political campaigns, and formation of the Women’s Electoral Lobby in 17. Greer also appeared on radio talk-back shows to publicize their goals and led most of the Women’s Liberation marches (refer to source 4.1.). Links were made with other women from overseas to strengthen the organization and International Woman’s Day was celebrated sending messages out to society of women’s rights.





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American Immigrants

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Sarmiento 1


Immigrants in America





An immigrant is a person who comes to a country in order to live there


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permanetly, as defined in the Websters Dictionary (pg 85). Immigrants come in all


different shapes, sizes, and color. There all different in the way they look. Other persons


would discribe an immigrant to be a person that comes from another country to in this


case America to look for a better life. Other immigrants come in search of work and


others in search for an opportunity to learn and get a better education. America is a


nation of Immigrants this phrase is heard almost everywhere in America. During the 0th


century many Immigrants came here and were treated unequal because of their differences.


During the 0th century the people from countries like Poland , Italy, and


countries in Europe began to pay more attention to the United States. As they began to


pay atttention to the United States they noticed that the population was growing. The U.S.


also had a reputation for its democratic government and for all its work opportunities. As


all these people saw all the differences going on, they thought that this country was a


better opportunity for a better life. America would be a life free of problems and poverty.


Atleast most of the poeple that immigrated to this country thought that. For other


immigrants their was a different reason, they didnt come because of their communist


government. They came during the 0th century becasue of the gold rush. They were all


coming for the gold, atleast most of them were. After the news spread to other countries


many of their citizens decided to immigrate to America to get a piece of the gold.


Every immigrant came from a different place and for different reasons. During this


time they came from all around the world but especially from the east. They came from


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FRIENDS

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well majoritly probalby hated that i didnt have any more entries on here lately(but i have yet to have very many people look at my entry). so you guys are probably wondering on the outcome of my situation well it is still pending and everyday i feel like things are going to end up very badly.


i got into with angelo and well things are not good between us, he finally got on my last nerve and well i told him to go fuck off(pardon my french)and when things between people are sour in a business conflicts start on who thinks things will be better one way than another, and the bad thing about it is my girl had to see me and him get into and he made me look like i was nothing to this world. but to me he is no better than the ground i walk on. well today im going to buy a new gun kinda of, im just buying another glock 1 because the guys feel that i need more firepower to keep me safe and they think i have a not so great aim but i know i do i just think there being hesitant about me (when i was in the army during m-16 week when we where on range i shot out 40 on my target shooting) but im a second gun so that way i know i have a better chance of keeping my self safe if i shoot two guns at a time.


speaking of the miltary i have been thinking of joining back up but only in the reserves this time, now my girlfreind thinks that isnt a good thing because when she found out she hit me.......... HARD, but she told me that i hadnt said to her a thing about it but i swear i did but anywho, i miss it so much i miss the guys that i went through basic with i miss basic training i miss it all(alot of people think im crazy but come on alot of people know that i am) but hey its only part time so people dont sweat it.


I was thinking to myself i havent told alot of you or the ones that i love what has been bothering me the most i seriously think that when i tell you, you will think different, well see the thing is that when i stayed out in cali i kept to myself because i missed so much and i thought about it and i still do but not as much but i really think that the only freinds i have in this world will end up going away and the same with my loved ones because they always do and for some reason i make them run and i dont know why, i just have a vibe that kicks in after a while and people just dont like me anymore, and im afraid that its going to happen again and my heart will not be able to stand it, and most people think on stuff about that, that people will not miss them but i know i will be missed and loved but between that time i feel like nobody will pay attention to me, my only thing that i ask for from the people i know and i care about now just show me that you actually care.


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i only feel like i really matter to people and thats my girl and my best freind big d and my brother but if i my brother finds out it will then only be two, but i know that my girlfriend and d will always be there for me and if anything ever happens i know that they will be ones to help me through it, i just wish i knew how to show them my gratitude back but i have nothing excep to say thank you and i know they will say thats good enough but to me its not





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Analytical Framework IV

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In Lynn Horton’s book, Peasants in Arms War and Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, 17-14, she has identified the history and the events in the Nicaraguan community of Quilali from the ousting of the Somoza dictatorship by the Sandinistas, and the subsequent uprising of the anti-Sandista movement. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the municipality and residents of Quilali were situated within the Nicaraguan Revolution and counter-revolution, within the various insurgencies that had surfaced. Additionally, I will identify, in terms of the dyads discussed for this course, how they apply or do not apply in the instance of this study.


Prior to any discussion regarding the revolution or counter-revolution and its various components, I feel it’s essential to understand the culture of the Quilali region. It is important to understand the cultural values, expectations and political orientation of the people in this region as it will lend to a better understanding of some important driving forces for the mobilization of the populace. Additionally, some discussion of the location of Quilali and its terrain is of some importance and warrants some attention.


Horton has divided the populace of the Quilali region into four rural sectors large landowners (terratenientes), wealthy peasants (finqueros), middle peasants and poor peasants. The large landowners were regionally powerful and wealthy families who generally did not live in the municipality of Quilali and had foreman running their lands as their primary interests were outside of the Quilali area. These terratenientes, of which there were five, owned approximately 0% of the land in the region. Prior to the revolution they were supporters of the Somoza government. Finqueros, on the other hand, were long-term Quilali residents who were locally powerful. They owned nearly one third of the farmland and pastures and directly oversaw their farms. The distinguishing factor between terratenientes and finqueros was the deep community roots the finqueros had coupled with the roles they played in the political and social life of Quilali. Middle peasants owned smaller tracks of land outside of the town and relied on immediate or extended families and reciprocal labor agreements to work their land. These middle peasants were generally more self-sufficient than the poor peasants and had general agricultural tools to work the land. The poor peasants owned the smallest tracks of land, if any. In general terms they all had access to land either by squatting, renting or purchasing. These peasants were generally located in the northern or western mountain zones.


Of particular interest are the relationships between the above groups. As there was limited government involvement in the region of Quilali, relationships were formed between the groups in a paternal nature. If a poor peasant needed assistance or a loan he may seek assistance from a member of the middle peasants. Finqueros commonly offered loans or bought crops in advance to provide a cash source to the poorer peasants. This is not to say they did this with no benefits to themselves, interests on loans could be as high as five percent per month or crops that were paid for and not delivered could result in the forfeiture of land. All in all these relationships developed over a period of years and became the way of life for the residents of Quilali, where the rich needed the poor and the poor needed the rich. Outside of the terratenientes, the other residents of Quilali were not in touch with national political activities. This was a foreign concept to them in general as it had no impact on their lives on a day-to-day basis prior to the revolution. Land was of primary importance to all in the region as most families relied on their crops to sustain them throughout the year. Up until and throughout the revolution land became increasingly difficult to get and would play a significant role throughout the revolution and counter-revolution activities. Survival would be difficult for any peasant that did not have access to land to work.


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Quiali is located in the Northeast of Nicaragua. Horton has divided the Quilali region into three distinct areas the town of Quilali, the Southeastern section of the municipality, and the northern and western sections of the municipality. These three geographic locations would become significant in its own way throughout the revolution. As we will see, the Sandinsista government would be able to establish some form of control over the town and the Southeastern section of the municipality. The southeastern section was considered to be prime farmland, which, prior to the revolution, was largely controlled by the terratenientes. The one sector that the Sandinista government was unable to control was the northern and western zones. These areas were inhabited by the poor peasants, and later served as a prime base for Contra guerrillas, due to the rough hilly and mountainous terrain. This area was largely out of reach for government officials and therefore primarily controlled by the Contra forces.


It is equally important to note how the Sandinistas were able to overthrow the Somoza dictatorship. Horton identifies the “Liberation Theology” (Pg 66) as a key mobilizing force for several dozen peasants, to move from a “passive acceptance to active agents” in their quest to have a larger say in their governance. These religious prompted efforts, which also took place in urban areas of Nicaragua , were the beginnings of an awakening of the peasants on political issues. The finqueros were not satisfied with the Somoza regime as they felt that they were not afforded the same political latitude as the terratenientes. Political appointments (even local ones) were given to the elites. This tended to alienate the finqueros who also felt repressed. This is important to note because these finqueros had the ability to recruit those peasants that they had developed paternalistic ties with. By the mid-70s, the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), or Sandinista National Liberation Front had come to being. The FSLN was able to establish a number of base camps in the mountainous region and relied on covert recruitment in order to establish support networks. Their overall goal was to overthrow the Somoza regiem and establish a communist state. What they were able to capitalize on was the promotion of programs and land targeting the poor. With land in demand and promises of land redistribution to the poor, coupled with their efforts at recruiting a multi-class base of support both in the urban and rural areas eventually would swing the balance of power to the Sandinistas. With a large number of the populace, which viewed the current dictatorship as being corrupt and repressive, and without an alternative political avenue, the Sandinistas were able to capitalize on this void to fuel their insurgency. Soon general strikes and uprisings would occur. Sandanista guerrilla attacks and ambushes in the northern mountains would draw away National Guard forces from urban areas. On 17 July 17, President Somoza repotedly fled the country and the National Guard had collapsed (pg 75). The Sandinista insurgency had proven successful and they assumed control of Nicaragua.


What the people of Nicaragua were soon to find out was that many of the promises made by the Sandinistas were only in part true. The Sandinistas, looking to apply the principles of a communist state, established several government programs such as health projects, literacy programs and rural credit. While these programs and activities were important, especially giving rural credit to peasants, it does not seem to be as important as the promises of land to all. Many of the peasants thought that due to the revolution they would benefit materialistically. With the exceptions noted above this would not be so. One of the side effects of the revolution was the advances in political knowledge and expectations the peasants had gained. The Sandinistas had to grapple with was the land issue. They opted to establish state farms (collectives) in some cases, while in others they allowed certain supporters to continue to hold their own land. In my opinion no matter what action the Sandinistas in regards to land reform they would inevitably alienated a section of the population. A population that had very strong beliefs towards land ownership.


In the case of Quilali, some of the populace were further alienated for a few reasons. First, the method of land redistribution was seen as being unjust. It was seen as although some may benefit from the redistribution, inevitably someone would lose because of it. In a community with close paternalistic-clientistic relationships, essentially the government was viewed as robbing peter to pay paul. Secondly, Certain supporters, ex-combatants, of the Sandinistas felt they should be better rewarded for their service to the Sandinistas. Thirdly, some members felt deceived when they discovered that the Sandinista political goal was not democracy, but communism. Lastly, as Horton states, “…finqueros were disgruntled with a government that paid them low pices for their export crops, displaced them in commerce, and was unable to ensure the adequate and timely supply of agricultural inputs.” For these reasons we find the formation of the first counter-revolutionary force, the Anti-Sandinista Popular Militia (Milicia Popular Anti-Sandinista, MILPA).


The MILPAs were initially a group of finquero sons who, in 180, launched its first attack on the town of Quilali (pg 6). Other ex-Sandinista guerrillas were soon to join the cause as they were discontent with the activities of the Sandinista government . Yet, as Horton states, the rallying cry would be the land expropriations. The MILPAs would eventually attempt to align themselves with political opposition leaders, but were unsuccessful. The MILPA guerrillas, eventually would base themselves in the mountains and was headed up by Pedro Joaquin Gonzalez. Unable to find additional allies, MILPA leaders headed to the Honduras where they sought out ex-National Guard who had taken refuge there. Although the MILPAs were not pro-Somoza, both parties had a mutual interest in ousting the Sandinistas. Under their current composition, the MILPAs were able to recruit guerrillas by drawing on the paternalistic ties that the region was so long used to, while their fathers provided logistical support. By joining the ex-National Guardsmen, they would gain access to more manpower and financial support. It was in 181 when the MILPAs integrated with the guardsman in a group called the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerza Democratica Nicaraguense, FDN, and were called Contras).





Works Cited


Marks, Tom. Making Revolution The Insurgency of the Communist Party of Thailand


and Structural Perspective. Bangkok White Lotus, 14.


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what is an American.

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What is an American? Many people have there own beliefs of what makes an American. Many people consider and American to be a person who has loyalty and pride in there country and who would die to protect this country. Or and American can be classified as one who just lives here. There are various ways to classify an “American”


And what makes you one. To me an American is one who pays taxes, has pride and one who supports the country.


First of all, an American is one who pays taxes. If a person pays there taxes to this country then there an American. To me, if you support this country with money and finances, which in turn go to the army, school, public places etc. Then that makes you an American because you live here and you support this country economically.


Second of all, an American is one who has pride for this country. When I say pride I mean one who loves this country to death even if they weren’t born here. One who will fight for their country and would love nothing more then to say, “ I’m an American”. Pride is one thing everyone cherishes more than anything and to have pride in your country means you’re a true American.


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Lastly, an American is one who supports their country. When I say support I mean any kind of support economically, socially, etc. For example supports would be backing the U.S with the war in Iraq even though you may not agree with it just showing support for your country and soldiers makes you and American. Even going out and helping when the country is in need is support. Buying an American Flag and putting it on your car shows support and things like that distinguish an American.


In retrospect, an American is one who pays taxes, has pride and one who supports the country. Though my ideas of what an “American” is may vary and you will find that it does vary from person to person these are three fundamental reason on how to classify what is an American.





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Defs 4 history

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Freshman Summer Packet PIB Integrated History


Brandon Espinosa 41544


1) Abdicate is to renounce or relinquish a throne, right, power, claim, or the like, esp. in a femoral manner.


) Abolitionists


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1. The act of abolishing.


. The legal termination of Negro slavery in the U.S.


) Absolute monarch is a monarchy that is not limited by laws or a condition.


4) Anarchist is one who uses violent means to overthrow the established order.


5) Anti Federalists is a member of the group opposed the adoption of the U.S. constitution.


6) Anti Semitism is a hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or radical group.


7) Apartheid is a policy of segregation a political and economic discrimination against non-European group in the Republic of Southern Africa.


8) Appeasement is to bring to a state of peace or contentment; pacify.


) Armistice is the temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement between the opponents.


10) Assimilate is to take into the mind and thoroughly comprehend.


11) Autocracy is the government in which one person possesses unlimited power.


1) Autocrat is a person (as a monarch) ruling with unlimited authority.


1) Balance of power is equilibrium of power sufficient to discourage or prevent one nation or party from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another.


14) Barter economy is an economic model of international trade in which goods are exchanged for goods without the existence of money.


15) Bicameral is having, consisting of, or based on two legislative chambers.


16) Blockade is the isolation by a warring nation of an enemy area (as a harbor) by troops or warships to prevent passage of persons or supplies; broadly a restrictive measure designed to obstruct the commerce and communications of an unfriendly nation.


17) Bureaucracy is government characterized by specialization of functions, adherence to fixed rules, and a hierarchy of authority.


18) Capital


1. Is a city serving as a seat of government.


. A city preeminent in some special activity the fashion capital.


1) Capitalism is an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market.


0) City-state is a sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory.


1) Civil disobedience is refusal to obey governmental demands or commands especially as a nonviolent and usually collective means of forcing concessions from the government.


) Civil law is the law of civil or private rights.


) Civilization is a relatively high level of cultural and technological development; specifically the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained.


4) Civil rights movement is movement in the United States beginning in the 160s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens.


5) Civil war is a war between opposing groups of citizens of the same country.


6) Coalition is a temporary alliance of distinct parties, persons, or states for joint action.


7) Collective security is the maintenance by common action of the security of all members of an association of nations.


8) Collectivization is a political or economic theory advocating collective control especially over production and distribution; also a system marked by such control.


) Command economy is the relating to, based on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of, relating to, or based on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.


0) Communism is a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production.


1) Conservative is marked by or relating to traditional norms of taste, elegance, style, or manners.


) Constitution is the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it.


) Constitutional government is a form of government in which a constitution details the powers available to each branch of government, and the rights of the individual in relation to the government.


4) Constitutional monarchy is a monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation.


5) Containment is a policy of checking the expansion or influence of a hostile power or ideology, as by the creation of strategic alliances or support of client states in areas of conflict or unrest.


6) Cultural diffusion is the spreading of a cultural trait (e.g., material object, idea, or behavior pattern) from one society to another.


7) Deficit is an unfavorable condition or positions a disadvantage.


8) Democracy is Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives.


) Democrat is one who practices social equality.


40) Depression is a period of low general economic activity marked especially by rising levels of unemployment.


41) D�tente is a policy toward a rival nation or bloc characterized by increased diplomatic, commercial, and cultural contact and a desire to reduce tensions, as through negotiation or talks.


4) Diaspora is a dispersion of an originally homogeneous entity, such as a language or culture.


4) Dictatorship is Absolute or despotic control or power.


44) Direct democracy is a form of government in which all citizens can directly participate in the decision-making process.


45) Disarmament is the act of laying down arms, especially the reduction or abolition of a nations military forces and armaments.


46) Dissent is the refusal to conform to the authority or doctrine of an established church nonconformity.


47) Divine right is the doctrine that monarchs derive their right to rule directly from God and are accountable only to God.


48) Economics is a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.


4) Electorate is a body of people entitled to vote.


50) Emancipation is free from restraint, control, or the power of another especially to free from bondage.


51) Embargo is a government order prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports.


5) Émigr� is one who has left a native country, especially for political reasons.


5) Empire is an extensive enterprise under a unified authority.


54) Entrepreneur is a person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.


55) Facism is a system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.


56) Federalists are a member of a former political party in the US that favored a strong centralized federal government.


57) Federal republic is is a republic in which a union of states or districts which retain only a subordinate and limited sovereignty under a central republican authority.


58) Federal system is _______________________________.


5) Free enterprise is the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.


60) Genocide is the systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group.


61) General strike is a cessation of work by all union members in a geographical area, usually as a political protest.


6) Guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards.


6) Hebeas corpus is a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge.


64) Humanism is a cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome.


65) Humanities consist of branches of knowledge, such as philosophy, literature, and art, which are concerned with human thought and culture the liberal arts.


66) Human rights is The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.


67) Imperialism is the policy of extending a nations authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.


68) Indigenous is Originating and living or occurring naturally in an area or environment.


6) Industrialism is an economic and social system based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories.


70) Inflation is a persistent increase in the level of consumer prices or a persistent decline in the purchasing power of money, caused by an increase in available currency and credit beyond the proportion of available goods and services.


71) Interdependence is a reciprocal relation between interdependent individuals or groups.


7) Isolationism is a national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.


7) Jury is a body of persons sworn to judge and give a verdict on a given matter, especially a body of persons summoned by law and sworn to hear and hand down a verdict upon a case presented in court.


74) Labor union is an organization of wage earners formed for serving the members interests with respect to wages and working conditions.


75) Laissez Faire is an economic doctrine that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws.


76) Law of demand is if supply is held constant, an increase in demand leads to an increased market price, while a decrease in demand leads to a decreased market price.


77) Law of supply is if demand is held constant, an increase in supply leads to a decreased price, while a decrease in supply leads to an increased price.


78) Legitimacy is the state, or quality, of being legitimate, or in conformity with law; hence, the condition of having been lawfully begotten, or born in wedlock.


7) Liberal of, designating, or characteristic of a political party founded on or associated with principles of social and political liberalism, especially in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States.


80) Limited government is one that does not have enormous power.


81) Limited monarchy is a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution.


8) Literacy rate is __________________________________.


8) Lobbying is to try to influence the thinking of legislators or other public officials for or against a specific cause.


84) Mandate is a contract by which one party agrees to perform services for another without payment.


85) Manifest destiny is the 1th-century doctrine that the United States had the right and duty to expand throughout the North American continent.


86) Market economy is An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority; a capitalistic economy.


87) Marxism is the political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding societys allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society.


88) Means of production is In Marxist theory, the ability to produce including the physical, technological, political, economic, and social ability to do so.


8) Mercantilism is the theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism, based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.


0) Middle class is the socioeconomic class between the working class and the upper class.


1) Militarism is a military state or condition; reliance on military force in administering government; a military system.


) Militia is the body of citizens enrolled for military instruction and discipline, but not subject to be called into actual service except in emergencies.


) Mixed economy is an economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprises.


4) Moderate is opposed to radical or extreme views or measures, especially in politics or religion.


5) Monarchy is a state or government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch.


6) Monopoly is a right granted by a government giving exclusive control over a specified commercial activity to a single party.


7) Monotheistic is the doctrine or belief that there is only one God.


8) Nationalism is the belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals.


) Natural law is a law or body of laws that derives from nature and is believed to be binding upon human actions apart from or in conjunction with laws established by human authority.


100) Natural right is any right that exists by virtue of natural law.


101) Oligopoly is a market condition in which sellers are so few that the actions of any one of them will materially affect price and have a measurable impact on competitors.


10) Oligarchy is A form of government in which the supreme power is placed in the hands of a few persons; also, those who form the ruling few.


10) Opportunity cost is the cost of passing up the next best choice when making a decision. For example, if an asset such as capital is used for one purpose, the opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose the asset could have been used for. Opportunity cost analysis is an important part of a companys decision-making processes, but is not treated as an actual cost in any financial statement.


104) Pacifism is the belief that disputes between nations should and can be settled peacefully.


105) Political party is an organization to gain political power.


106) Polytheistic is the worship of or belief in more than one god.


107) Progressive is a person who actively favors or strives for progress toward better conditions, as in society or government.


108) Profit is the return received on a business undertaking after all operating expenses have been met.


10) Racism is the belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others.


110) Recession is an extended decline in general business activity, typically three consecutive quarters of falling real gross national product.


111) Reparation is Compensation or remuneration required from a defeated nation as indemnity for damage or injury during a war.


11) Republic is a political order in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who are entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.


11) Republican is one of the existing great parties. It was organized in 1856 by a combination of voters from other parties for opposing the extension of slavery, and in 1860 it elected Abraham Lincoln president.


114) Reserved powers are a political power that a constitution reserves exclusively to the jurisdiction of a particular political authority.


115) Revolution is a fundamental change in political organization, or in a government or constitution; the overthrow or renunciation of one government, and the substitution of another, by the governed.


116) Revenue is the income of a government from all sources appropriated for the payment of the public expenses.


117) Sanction is a coercive measure adopted usually by several nations acting together against a nation violating international law.


118) Scarcity is Insufficiency of amount or supply; shortage.


11) Scientific method is The principles and empirical processes of discovery and demonstration considered characteristic of or necessary for scientific investigation, generally involving the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis.


10) Secede is to withdraw formally from membership in an organization, association, or alliance.


11) Segregation is the policy or practice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups, as in schools, housing, and public or commercial facilities, especially as a form of discrimination.


1) Self-determination is Freedom of the people of a given area to determine their own political status independence.


1) Separation of powers is the principle or system of vesting in separate branches the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of a government.


14) Social contract is an agreement among the members of an organized society or between the governed and the government defining and limiting the rights and duties of each.


15) Social Darwinism is the application of Darwinism to the study of human society, specifically a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.


16) Socialism is the stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate between capitalism and communism, in which collective ownership of the economy under the dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been successfully achieved.


17) Sovereignty is complete independence and self-government.


18) Soviet is one of the elected government councils that existed at local, regional, and national levels in the former Soviet Union. The highest was the Supreme Soviet.


1) Sphere of influence is a territorial area over which political or economic influence is wielded by one nation.


10) Stalemate is a situation in which further action is blocked a deadlock.


11) Standard of living is a level of material comfort as measured by the goods, services, and luxuries available to an individual, group, or nation.


1) State is a part of a large country with its own government, such as in Germany, Australia or the U.S.


1) Suffrage is the right or privilege of voting; franchise.


14) Superpower is a powerful and influential nation, especially a nuclear power that dominates its allies or client states in an international power bloc.


15) The supremacy clause is Clause in Article VI of the United States Constitution. It establishes the Constitution, Federal Statutes, and U.S. treaties as the supreme law of the land.


16) Tariff is A schedule, system, or scheme of duties imposed by the government of a country upon goods imported or exported; as, a revenue tariff; a protective tariff; Clays compromise tariff.


17) Theocracy is a government ruled by or subject to religious authority.


18) Totalitarianism is of, relating to, being, or imposing a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed.


1) Trade off is a balancing of factors none of which are attainable at the same time.


140) Unicameral is having or consisting of a single legislative chamber.


141) Union is The United States of America regarded as a national unit, especially during the Civil War.


14) Urbanization is the quality or state of being urbanized or the process of becoming urbanized.


14) Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the criterion of the virtue of action.


144) Veto is The vested power or constitutional right of one branch or department of government to refuse approval of measures proposed by another department, especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature and thus prevent or delay its enactment into law.


145) War crime is any of various crimes, such as genocide or the mistreatment of prisoners of war, committed during a war and considered in violation of the conventions of warfare.


146) Warlord is a military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it.


147) Welfare state is a social system whereby the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, as in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security.


148) Westernization is familiarizing with or converting to customs and practices of Western civilization.


14) Writ of Habeas Corpus is any of several common-law writs issued to bring a party before a court or judge.





Brandon Espinosa


8/06/0 41544











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Paper II

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Big Burger was established in 180 by opening one outlet in Manchester. In 18, our founder decided to open another three outlets. Our founder then kept on expanding the business and after years of hard work and motivation; there were over 145 outlets in the United Kingdom in the year 187. By the end of 14, there were over 500 branches. This was due to the success of the outlets that were set up pre 187. We now employ approximately ,000 people.


When we decided on Newbewick being a good location to open our latest addition to the chain of outlets, we had to discuss and decide on a number of factors


The first factor that we had to consider was the cost of the land including parking costs. In this factor, we firstly had to decide to purchase or rent the land. As our stay in Newbewick seemed to be permanent and the cost of land in the area was not that expensive, we decided to purchase the land. Then we had to decide if the council Newbewick could provide us with adequate drainage. We need adequate drainage because we are a restaurant and always clean our premises and equipment on out premises in the interest of hygiene and the cleaning methods we use involve producing a large amount of waste that needs to be drained. To solve this issue we talked to the Newbewick City Council. The council assured us that adequate drainage was available to meet our needs. We then had to research the rates payable to the local council. After asking similar business in the area, we found out that the rates were reasonable and are similarly priced as most of our outlets.


The second factor that we had to consider was the cost of building on the premises and relevantly converting and designing the built building into a suitable restaurant environment. We had to research and negotiate prices with builders and designers in the area. After some time, we managed to obtain a reasonable price for building and converting with two local firms. The fact that the site is tightly squeezed means that there is little room for the designers to work on and makes it more difficult to carry out delicate tasks. This raised the designing price.


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The third factor that we had to consider was the local population, especially the nearby housing estates. Site A is directly located near a planned new housing estate, Site B is directly located near terraced and detached housing and Site C is located near detached housing but separated by a road. We also had to review a recent census, looking at the age and income distributions and major occupations of the local population. We also had to research where competition from similar restaurants was located.


The fourth factor that we had to consider was the ease of travel to and from the site. Newbewick has a very good infrastructure and seems very accessible with very good road links. This is important to us because we want to insure that our customers can travel to and from our outlet without any hassle or difficulties.


After reviewing these factors, we came to a conclusion that Newbewick was a more than suitable site for Big Burger.


From all the sites in Newbewick, we decided to choose site C. The reason that mainly influenced us when deciding on this site was the parkland nearby. The park provides our customers with a place to eat their meals with the surrounding nature and tranquillity. We acknowledge that this may cause litter problems in the park but to solve this we have employed litter rangers to go to the park every night and clean up any litter that has been caused by our packaging and food. The road nearby provides a good place for motorists to stop off for a meal. Another road near the site originates from Fordbury, therefore attracting more motorists. The detached houses nearby are separated from the site by a road, causing minimal disturbance to the residents.


If I could have been supplied with more data I would have firstly wanted to know where competition was located. This would enable us to choose a site where competition would not have a great effect on us. Secondly, I would have liked information on costs and rates in the area. This would be useful in deciding how much profit we could make in Newbewick and if it was worth opening an outlet in this area if the rates were too high.





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scarlet letter

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Substitute the obvious change in pronoun and controversial photo-spreads in Vanity Fair for tight pants and capped teeth and you have Demi Moore and her latest dilemma, the movie adaptation of The Scarlet Letter. The novel is indeed an unqualified classic, by American or any other standards. It addresses issues of group cohesiveness as a survival tactic and how much personal freedom can be permitted in the face of potential group annihilation by forces acting both from without and within. In the center of this debate, Hawthorne places one Hester Prynne, a woman who has given birth to a child which is not her husbands, but has been fathered by the local minister, a man whose piety and reputation has been deemed by his community to be beyond reproach. As punishment not only for her sin of adultery but also, and more specifically, her refusal to name her co-transgressor, Hester is made to wear a scarlet letter, denoting her status as an adulteress. For modern audiences, the notion that violating the seventh commandment is the equivalent of endangering the community at large might strike some as being a rather quaint notion. But, as cultural historian Leo Marx has rightfully indicated, the landscape in which Hawthornes Puritans found themselves, now part of the state of Massachusetts, is not merely a backdrop for events; it is inseparable from policy and action and meaning. Hesters judges are deadly serious with the threat of Indian attack ever-present, they cannot afford to see her silence as anything but dangerously insolent willfulness. The speculation that will result from her silence will poison the community with speculation and suspicion, threatening damnation from God in the form of weakened moral fiber and group solidarity, making the community divided and vulnerable.





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