Stolen

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Jimmy and Ruby are the most obvious victims in Stolen, but all suffer in their different ways. Discuss


The most obvious victims in a tragedy like the Stolen generation are those in whom the pain and suffering endured is visible to all. Jane Harrison’s ‘Stolen’ presents Ruby and Jimmy as the most obvious victims but not necessarily the greatest, as may be naively assumed.


The remaining characters, Anne, Shirley and Sandy all suffer huge depths of despair, yet their suffering appears to lessen to some degree in the eyes of the viewer/reader due to their hope, determination and stability which in some ways assist them in attempting to resolve their problems and become reunited with their loved ones.


The physical and sexual abuse experienced by Ruby and Jimmy is horrifying and obviously very visible to others. The loss that Ruby and Jimmy suffered was a loss of dignity and to the extent that they were both unable to keep fighting “I just can’t [fight] no more” or hold on to any hope of reuniting with their families because their pain was too great “they stuck a knife into me heart” The children were deceived with the hopes of being cared for “matron said they’re gunna take one of us home” and when they understood the truth they were disheartened and lost in silence “ I promised not to tell”


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Jimmy and Ruby both led very tragic lives by the closing scene of the play, implying that perhaps they are the greatest sufferers because of their obvious pain. Jimmy the playful young boy has had his heart ripped apart by the hope “I’m finally gunna meet my mother” of finally reconnecting with his mum and the despair of her death, and takes his own life as a melancholy eccentric prison inmate “I’m going now, to be with my mother”


Unlike Jimmy, Ruby has the chance to be with her family again, “ Sis, we’ve come to take you home” but her mental and emotional state is beyond repair after the damage done to her, “ don’t live in no home anymore” In “Ruby’s family come to visit” it appears Ruby is inevitably set to live a lonely and disjointed life…if she continues to even have the strength or will to live.


A victim of loss, like Ruby, Shirley speaks on behalf of both children and mothers who have lost the family because of the ‘welfare’ system. Shirley experiences the pain twice; obviously she suffers immense emotional damage due to her situation, yet Shirley appears to conceal it with her incredible strength of hope. The pain deep inside of her is hidden by her optimism, presented through her continuos knitting “representing the years she has knitted…without ever getting the chance to give them her symbols of love.” Shirley appears to be less of an obvious victim because she remains hopeful despite nearly “losing the plot” and determined, as “Shirley never gives up searching”


Also appearing to never give up is Anne, the young girl brought up by white adoptive parents and never told of her Aboriginal family and heritage until seemingly too late “ It’s about your mother...she’s dying” While Anne appears to have a great deal going for her in life, she lives luxuriously in comparison to the institution like building of the children’s home“ my home’s got lace curtains… and I’ve got a room all to myself” she is caught between two very different worlds, communities and families.


Anne seems very stable and loved by her adoptive parents, but should they really be considered loving considering they never told Anne who she was, what her identity is, until too late. As a result of Anne’s white family and lifestyle Anne faces stressful issues such as acceptance into either community “ Don’t just think you have an automatic right to be here.” she is torn apart and finds it incredibly difficult to find her place anywhere, “ Am I black or white” However the support Anne has present around her allows her to make hopeful decisions “ either way I love them both”


Stability is obvious without doubt in Sandy, the young boy who was lucky to spend time with his family before being separated was always aware of his identity. Sandy even shared his knowledge of their culture with the other children ion the home by telling them the story of the Mungee, much to the distress of others who knew it was wrong to speak their native language in the home “ you’re not allowed to say that”. He is proud of his identity and while he suffers the pain of never being reunited with his parents, he has the strength to be content with being back ‘home’ on the land he loves. Sandy’s attitude is probably due to his obvious family connections and love that is evident through his experience of hiding before he was taken away to the children’s home, his relations went to extremes to save him “ I tried to pass him off as one of my mob…” “ He hid in Jake’s kennel”


One cannot measure the depth of suffering endured by the children, parents and families of the Stolen generation, obvious victims are easy to recognise due to the physicality of their abuse. Yet one can measure the depths of hope, determination and stability that allow people to create them as less of victims and live beyond the tragedies, “ not give up fighting” and “ don’t let it happen again”





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Jack

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The destruction of Oedipus was caused by a number of factors, including the workings of fate and the decisions made by Oedipus throughout his lifetime. No single factor can be deemed as the sole cause of the tragic downfall of one of this prominent hero. It can be argued that it was Oedipus’s duty as King that brought about this descent. The events that led to him becoming the King of Thebes were life decisions that steered him to destruction. In his regal duties, Oedipus merely unveils the truth and wipes the falsified and misted hope that has clouded his eyes, allowing him to live his life thinking that the Oracle’s prophecy wasn’t true. It is the truth that destroys Oedipus. A false sense of security had obscured Oedipus, and his own destruction was a result of this dual “blindness” as evidenced by the revelation exposed during his reign as King of Thebes.


“I, Oedipus, whose name is known afar.” Early on in the play, Oedipus establishes himself as a decisive character one renowned beyond the borders of Theban territory. Although the mythical basis of the Theban legend doesn’t allow Sophocles much room for factual creativity, one can draw the interpretation that we as readers are being positioned to assume that the same characteristics of Oedipus trace back beyond the confines of the play. Much of the action that one can relate to Oedipus’s tragic downfall can be tied back to his hamartia. His thirst for the truth is a character trait that compelled his defiance of the Oracles, and drove him to believe that he was untouchable that his predetermined fate had forgotten to apply itself and alternately escaped him. It is this naive and essentially arrogant approach to life and power that brings about Oedipus’s downfall, his role as King merely


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don't know

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If Oedipus had allowed himself to be shaped by the situations surrounding him, and essentially listened to those who warned him not to pursue his quest for the truth, his fate may not have been so tragic. Against the plea of his wife to “forget” his line of argument, and her explicit cry that he will “never live to learn the truth. (p. 55)”, Oedipus was quick to dismiss Jocasta’s words of wisdom. He condemns them as the embarrassed remarks of a haughty and self-righteous Queen, and leaves her to “enjoy her pride of birth. (p. 55)”. As the dramatic irony heightens, we are left to wonder whether this is demonstrative of Oedipus’s honest character and his perpetual strive toward truthfulness. Alternately, perhaps it is another web of lies that Oedipus finds himself tangled within. In whichever way this is interpreted, if this character reacted in any other way, he wouldn’t be the same Oedipus that we have known and come to respect. This connection milks empathy from the audience and makes us truly comprehend the full weight of dramatic irony in this instance. Ultimately, it also exemplifies a decision made by Oedipus that contributes towards his own destruction, an element not directly linked to his duty as King.


As previously expressed, it can be perceived that it was Oedipus’s duty as King that ultimately led to his own downfall. If he had not been his duty to fulfil the demands of the Oracle and bring Laius’s murderer to justice, one must ask oneself whether or not this revelation would have led to such a catastrophic end. More plausibly, this argument falls apart when taking fate into account. No matter what Oedipus did in life, theoretically his fate was already mapped out and would eventuate at all costs. His duty as King to bring the murderer of Laius to justice wasn’t necessarily the cause of his own destruction. More so, it was the concluded destiny that lay ahead of him that can be attributed to this. This is demonstrated by the first Oracle, which ripens to fruition despite all efforts taken on behalf of Jocasta and Lauis to kill their infant son. One wonders whether this would have eventuated if the parties to the Oracle simply let nature run its course, and had not interjected in the way they did?


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The Beginning Edge

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I have the measles and the mumps,


A gash, a rash, and purple bumps.


My mouth is wet, my throat is dry,


Im going blind in my right eye.


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My tonsils are as big as rocks,


Ive counted sixteen chicken pox.


And theres one more ... thats seventeen!


And dont you think ... my face looks green?


My leg is cut, my eyes are blue,


It might be instamatic flu.


I cough and sneeze and gasp and choke,


Im sure that my left leg is broke. I have the measles and the mumps,


A gash, a rash, and purple bumps.


My mouth is wet, my throat is dry,


Im going blind in my right eye.


My tonsils are as big as rocks,


Ive counted sixteen chicken pox.


And theres one more ... thats seventeen!


And dont you think ... my face looks green?


My leg is cut, my eyes are blue,


It might be instamatic flu.


I cough and sneeze and gasp and choke,


Im sure that my left leg is broke.


My hip hurts when I move my chin,


My belly buttons caving in,


My back is wrenched, my ankles sprained,


My pendix pains each time it rains.


My nose is cold, my toes are numb,


I have a sliver in my thumb.


My neck is stiff, my spine is weak.


I hardly whisper when I speak.


My tongue is filling up my mouth,


I think my hair is falling out.


My elbows bent - my spine aint straight.


My temperature is one-o-eight.


My brain is shrunk, I cannot hear,


There is a hole inside my ear.


I have a hangnail, and my heart is ...


... WHAT?


Whats that? Whats that you say?


You say today is ... Saturday?


Gbye, Im going out to play!


I have the measles and the mumps,


A gash, a rash, and purple bumps.


My mouth is wet, my throat is dry,


Im going blind in my right eye.


My tonsils are as big as rocks,


Ive counted sixteen chicken pox.


And theres one more ... thats seventeen!


And dont you think ... my face looks green?


My leg is cut, my eyes are blue,


It might be instamatic flu.


I cough and sneeze and gasp and choke,


Im sure that my left leg is broke.


My hip hurts when I move my chin,


My belly buttons caving in,


My back is wrenched, my ankles sprained,


My pendix pains each time it rains.


My nose is cold, my toes are numb,


I have a sliver in my thumb.


My neck is stiff, my spine is weak.


I hardly whisper when I speak.


My tongue is filling up my mouth,


I think my hair is falling out.


My elbows bent - my spine aint straight.


My temperature is one-o-eight.


My brain is shrunk, I cannot hear,


There is a hole inside my ear.


I have a hangnail, and my heart is ...


... WHAT?


Whats that? Whats that you say?


You say today is ... Saturday?


Gbye, Im going out to play!


I have the measles and the mumps,


A gash, a rash, and purple bumps.


My mouth is wet, my throat is dry,


Im going blind in my right eye.


My tonsils are as big as rocks,


Ive counted sixteen chicken pox.


And theres one more ... thats seventeen!


And dont you think ... my face looks green?


My leg is cut, my eyes are blue,


It might be instamatic flu.


I cough and sneeze and gasp and choke,


Im sure that my left leg is broke.


My hip hurts when I move my chin,


My belly buttons caving in,


My back is wrenched, my ankles sprained,


My pendix pains each time it rains.


My nose is cold, my toes are numb,


I have a sliver in my thumb.


My neck is stiff, my spine is weak.


I hardly whisper when I speak.


My tongue is filling up my mouth,


I think my hair is falling out.


My elbows bent - my spine aint straight.


My temperature is one-o-eight.


My brain is shrunk, I cannot hear,


There is a hole inside my ear.


I have a hangnail, and my heart is ...


... WHAT?


Whats that? Whats that you say?


You say today is ... Saturday?


Gbye, Im going out to play!


My hip hurts when I move my chin,


My belly buttons caving in,


My back is wrenched, my ankles sprained,


My pendix pains each time it rains.


My nose is cold, my toes are numb,


I have a sliver in my thumb.


My neck is stiff, my spine is weak.


I hardly whisper when I speak.


My tongue is filling up my mouth,


I think my hair is falling out.


My elbows bent - my spine aint straight.


My temperature is one-o-eight.


My brain is shrunk, I cannot hear,


There is a hole inside my ear.


I have a hangnail, and my heart is ...


... WHAT?


Whats that? Whats that you say?


You say today is ... Saturday?


Gbye, Im going out to play!





Please note that this sample paper on The Beginning Edge is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on The Beginning Edge, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on The Beginning Edge will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Financial Stability

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Financial Stability. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Financial Stability paper right on time.

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Financial Stability


Radio Shack has demonstrated its dedication to growth and innovation by essentially “reinventing” itself over the past two years. The company new change was in order due to slumping sales and the realization that competing with its larger competitors in the areas of high-ticket items was fruitless. The company’s net income dropped from 68 million dollars in the year 000 to just 166.7 million dollars in the year 001. Radio Shack’s tight quarters made it a bad fit for selling items such as the high-end TVs and DVD players.


Radio Shack discovered a solution to this problem when it decided launched its unusual BB strategy Back-to-Batteries. The company will no longer focus recourses on high-ticket items, but rather will return to the basis of its original operations with a wider variety of batteries and smaller electronic products. The consumer-electronics retailer spent between 0 and 40 million dollars re-vamping its 5,100 stores. To make room for more batteries and gadgets, Radio Shack dumped all big-screen televisions and reduced the number of desktop computer models from four or five to just one. The company also discarded car stereos and security systems, deciding it could not compete against shops that offer installation. Radio Shack now carries a selection of digital cameras that can be picked up and tested, and have veered towards portable computing with their display of laptop computers. The company put battery carousels at the entrance of the stores and replaced cordless phones with an expanded line of leather cases, belt clips and various other accessories for cellular phones. This is good news for the 84% (U of A) of the surveyed population that acknowledged owning a cellular phone. Radio Shack’s recent refocusing and deletion of its more expensive products means the retailer would fit ideally into the average student’s budget.





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The BB strategy holds strong promise for the growth of Radio Shack and should prove to be extensively profitable. Items such as digital cameras and MP music players are spurring demand for special batteries. The company’s financial stability will ensure that if selected, RadioShack will provide quality services to the University of Arizona for years to come.





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Alexander McQueen

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Alexander McQueen. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Alexander McQueen paper right on time.

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Born in London in 16, leaving school at 16, Alexander McQueen stepped into the world of fashion. Creating and manipulating his unique designs with his talented skills, McQueen mastered 6 methods of pattern cutting from the 16th century and tailoring skills which today have given his McQueen signature. Also dubbed ‘enfant terrible’ by the fashion press





Receiving British Designer of the Year in 001, 16 and 17 and also the recipient of many more awards, Alexander McQueen is recognised as one of the most successful talents in the fashion industry and is known world-wide.


McQueen and His Collection


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Unique designs, stunning effects, powerful collections and a revolutionary designer. Put it together and you have Alexander McQueen! Varied views are shared among us from newspapers, fashion press to the internet fashion sites. Not always are the views good but a view is always present when it comes to Alexander McQueen. Some might say he was like Marmite, “ You either love it, or hate it.”


Styles the ‘Enfant terrible’ have brought to us are varied every season but just as exhilarating as his last flair. As we see here is an outfit from the Spring/Summer 00 collection which is a mixture of flimsy frills and tough leather or P.V.C. To me i would regard this as a typical McQueen signature because of the powerful colours like chocolate browns and calm creams which i think produces a nature on the model.


This glitzy vest and skirt is also another Spring/Summer 00 style, unlike the first outfit, this one would be more likely to be seen on the streets because of it’s Summer explosion and brighter colours and lighter fabrics. The sexy outfit lights up a dark street and leaves its statement of energy.





Along side is an A/W 17-18, titled “It’s A Jungle Out There” focused on animal instincts and powered danger against a derelict urban environment as McQueen’s influences. Made from traditional fabrics - Suede/leather looking animal skin jacket produced in a light brown possible reflecting a animal colour. Along with tight tie died trousers to show that jungle that is out there.


McQueen and Givenchy


Alexander McQueen silenced and dazzled Paris with his first show for Givenchy combining his mastered tailoring skills and his hard-edged street style. McQueen prepared ten collections a year for Givenchy, while continuing his own label. On the left, you can see a typical piece of McQueen’s work, this outfit is a really admiring piece, an intelligent form of contrast between hard and soft textures in produced here. Along side is this intellectual suit McQueen produced for Givenchy, it is very sharp and parallel unlike his own style.








Verdict


In my opinion Alexander McQueen is a unique, stubborn and a satisfying designer. His work is somewhat in ‘trend’, altered and duplicated to evoke this sensual birth. For this, I like and admire McQueen and his style.


My findings have entertained and intrigued me- McQueen’s first collection for Givenchy slated even by himself, “I know it was crap,” he told US Vogue in October 17. But at the same timed has inspired many people over the world.


Defiantly regarded as a, ‘one of a kind,’ McQueen reflects many of his designs on conflicting appearances which brings me to show what I think might be one of his most unusual yet elegant designs I have seen.


“Tragic shipwrecked banshee - frail tulle combined with gilt piping that decorates heavy melton jackets and trousers. A pregnant skinhead and vogue fashion editor model together “








I have also noticed how every single style is so dramatic, McQueen seeps at your eyes as they sink into the design provoking thoughts and ideas again and again.


Are McQueen’s designs showing his true personality? Does this bring out the REAL Alexander McQueen? I Would answer “yes” to both because without showing personality and a sense of mortality then designs like these could not be created.


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The Evil Forces That Be: Abigail Williams

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The Evil Forces That Be


Ms. Abigail Williams


Arthur Millers thrilling play The Crucible is a shocking tale of the Salem witchcraft trials and the evilness displayed by the main character and accuser, seventeen year old Abigail Williams. This play, often noted to be the most superior drama of all time, weaves a confusing web of characters. Out of all of these characters, Abigail Williams stands out among the rest as a crucial part to this madness. The absurd concoction of a story that Abigail manages to stir up and convince the whole town to take part in sends the entire community into a literal blood hunting frenzy. Abigail, the ringleader of all of the accusations, is most definitely one girl to frightened of. This young lady symbolizes the evil in this entire drama. Her actions and words are unbelievable and without a doubt characterize her as the most evil force in this small Puritan community. Any reader of The Crucible can obviously see that Abigail is partly, if not solely, responsible for a great deal of the trauma inflicted upon the other citizens in the town. Abigail Williams symbolizes all evil in Millers play The Crucible.


All throughout the story, Abigail is flashing her conniving ways. This character gives the reader many reasons to label her as an evil symbol. First and foremost, the entire witchcraft nonsense is created by Abigails lies. After Abigail and a few other girls are caught dancing in the woods, Abigail uses this as an opportunity to create the witchcraft in order to avoid being reprimanded and punished. From her false stories and accusations, she sends the town into a mad uproar over all of the so-called witches. Abigails diabolical ways are clearly seen in her complete disregard for ruining many peoples lives and families. She totally ignored the problems she was causing for other people to serve her own purposes. Abigail even goes so far as to threaten the other girls she was caught dancing with so they will not reveal her evil ploy and expose her for who she is. Abigail reasons that in such a Puritan society, the witchcraft story will go over well since Puritans feel so strongly about those types of issues. Abigails evilness continues throughout the story as her false accusations rise from one to many.


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This young girl does not simply accuse one or two people and leave it at that. Abigail proceeds to point out members of entire community. She accuses people with no solid reason, simply basing it on pure meanness. If witchcraft ever existed, Abigail would be that witch. She is the direct and indirect cause of many deaths. One of the most important accusations and perhaps the pinnacle of Abigails evilness is the accusation of Elizabeth Proctor, also known as Goody Proctor. Abigail accuses Mrs. Proctor of being a witch because of her past relationship with Elizabeths husband, John Proctor. Abigail had an affair with John and wishes Elizabeth dead so she can have John Proctor for herself. The very idea of this is heart wrenching for Abigail to be so cold-hearted in pursuing Elizabeths husband in such a way. Elizabeth, because of a conniving Abigail, faces a death based on lies. The reader can also sense Abigails devilish manners in the way that she manages to control others around her, some of which are adults. Abigail dangles John Proctor around like a puppet on a string. This grown man, obviously intimidated by this young teenage girl, is scared to report Abigail for her evil schemes. He knows Abigail has purposely lied about the witchcraft and is plotting his wifes death by falsely accusing her. But her evilness empowers him in such a way that he tries to get his servant, Mary Warren to report her. John does not want to face Abigail in court for many reasons. One reason being the fact that he is worried that she will report his unfaithfulness to the judge and the main reason is the fact that John fears Abigail. Abigail emits an evil air that frightens the people surrounding her.


Another example of this is the scene in which Mary Warren does go to court to report Abigail. Marys primary intention is to expose this fraudulent scheme and testify that the girls involved are pretending. However, once in court, Abigail not only denies everything that is brought forth against her, she pressures Mary Warren to accuse Goody Proctor of being a witch. This is a sure sign of the power that Abigails evilness holds above all of the others. It seems as if the whole town is more frightened of Abigail and what she will say or do than anything else.


Throughout this play, one would anticipate that the eyes of authority would see through Abigails scheme at least once. Especially when presented with the information that she stole thirty-one dollars from the Parris house, one would think that alone would make her less than a credible source. This, however, has no bearing on the credibility of her words. It seems as if even the judge and reverend fear going against Abigail. Her actions and underhanded ploys support the idea of her being the symbolism of evil throughout The Crucible.


Arthur Miller, an acclaimed playwright and leading writer used Abigail Williams as the main symbol of evil in this provocative tale. After reading just the first few scenes, it is obvious to the reader that Abigail is certainly running this show. She manages to use her conniving antics to hang many innocent people and everyone is intimidated by her evil schemes. Although the other may not believe her accusing words, many are too frightened to dispute her testimony. The irony of this is even though the play is intended to reveal the details of a witch-hunt started by Abigail, Abigail seems to be the only witch in the story, figuratively speaking. Arthur Miller is successful in portraying the seventeen-year-old girl to be a symbolism of evil. His intent never falters and the reader is constantly aware of the danger that Abigail could and did cause. On every page of this drama, it is clear that Abigail Williams is the epitome of the evil forces that be.





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media and violence

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“Tell me your color, and I’ll tell you your place” (Silverman/Rader 17). Society today is made up of people with various races and cultures. People see others as being different if they have nothing culturally in common. Because of media portrayal and our own family and peer influence, we are brought up to believe a certain way towards people of a race other than our own.


America has a very diverse culture. Currently the census bureau lists American Indian or Alaskan native, Asian or Pacific islander, black, white and Hispanics (Silverman/Rader 1). In an ever-changing society, there is much controversy over where or not there should be a category for multi-racial. For example, when Tiger Woods won the Masters, he was widely publicized as being the first African American to obtain this prestige in the golfing community. As a result, Woods publicly announced he was not black but was Cablinasian (Silverman/Rader 11). We are facing a problem in racial classification. Many feel this is brought on by the way society treats various races. We are forced to shy away from just being black or Asian and claiming our multi-racial heritage. In actual reality, many of us are derived from various races not just one.


Racial and ethnic categorization can be traced back many centuries. Our belief in differences are not brought on immediately but are molded from how society portrays it. Beverly Tatum explores why blacks are often seen sitting together in a cafeteria (Silverman/Rader 8). Here she summarizes that as children progress from elementary to high school education, how they see themselves changes. When a child is young, you never hear them say I am black. No one asks them this. The only difference they see is in age, stature or how smart they are. When they progress in school, they are around others who are viewed different and who have different beliefs. They then form bonds with others of the same race, others who they can relate to culturally. To better understand racial identity we can view William Cross’s five-stage model (Silverman/Rader ). Here he says that in the first stage a black child absorbs many of the beliefs and values of the dominant white culture, including the idea that it’s better to be white. They then transition to the encounter state, which is typically precipitate by an event that forces the young person to acknowledge the personal impact of racism. What we question is what is the event.


The media plays a huge role in how people are viewed in society. Oftentimes blacks and minorities are believed to be delinquents and criminals. They usually live in the same neighborhood sharing the same culture. Whether or not the assumption is true, you rarely see whites portrayed as criminals or even delinquents. But is their lifestyle by choice or cultures that have been handed down to them. If we traveled to a foreign country we might see people living together in squalor and in what we might see as poverty. But yet, they seem to be the happiest, proudest people we encounter. This is because they have embraced their culture and live with it in a society where they aren’t viewed as being different.


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Race is not the only place we see a difference. Gender is also categorized. Every place in society has a quota system. From the military to the college acceptance rate, we are given a percentage and aspect ratio of how many minorities attend and how many females compared to males are present. This is because we are trying to stray away from discrimination into a place where difference is seen as equal. How people are seen today did not just happen overnight. We can trace this back many centuries, seen in past wars, slavery and how our ancestors before us have lived. For example, in my grandmother’s days, women were homemakers and men are the breadwinners. That may have been acceptable then, but in a society where single parenting has increased and marriage is not seen as important, views have changed. Women are climbing the social ladder competing for high profile jobs and the pay that comes along with it.


History is a part of our lives that will never be forgotten. In order to change how we view others, we must change our own belief system as well. We will always have our own culture and our own separate races, but until differences are no longer stressed in such things as the census or job competition, we will never change. We carve our own path in life. Culture will always be an important part of our society, but no culture is superior over another.


Silverman, Jonathan and Rader Dean, The World is a Text; 00 5-





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One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Essay -

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Chief Bromden only begins to move towards sanity when he regains self-esteem and the ability to act upon his decisions. Discuss.


When talking about a person who is ‘sane’ it means they are normal. To be ‘normal’ is to be accepted by ‘society’. Chief Bromden calls society the ‘combine’. He has been institutionalised because he has been filled with self doubt his whole life and considers himself ‘weak’.


To have self-esteem is to feel good about oneself. This attribute plays a huge role in Chief Bromden’s life. Having a ‘good’ self-esteem can help a person to succeed in life, on the other hand to have a ‘lack’ in self-esteem can drive a person to insanity or even death. If this low level of self-esteem is recognised it may be a target that leads to abuse from others. Chief Bromden like everyone else relies on his self-esteem to maintain his sanity. And like others he has experienced a lack of self-esteem at a very young age where it is considered most important. His memories of “Columbia” showed that the people sent by the government ignored him, as they thought he was deaf and dumb. And when he did speak they didn’t seem to notice. Another memory which caused his lack of self-esteem was his mother. She was not Indian, but a white woman who had dominated the Chief and his father. She was “Bigger than Papa and me together.” We know the Chief is a huge man, and he describes his father as “big” as himself. This woman could not be bigger, it is physically impossible. This shows the mental hold his mother had on him and how she lowered the level of his self-esteem.


In Nurse Ratched’s ward, of all the “acute” patients only Scanlon was committed. The rest of the acute patients were on the ward voluntarily. Prior to the committed McMurphy’s arrival, all these patients had one thing in common. They all lacked self-esteem. Billy Bibbit said that “If we had the guts I could go outside today… If I had the guts!” They all can’t cope with the ‘real’ world. The patients are ‘inside’ the ward to hide from this ‘reality’ and the problems that life deals them. In most cases, when a patient is in such a ward they are expected to ‘heal’ and become “fixed”. This includes their regain of self-esteem, but in Nurse Ratched’s ward they do not get a “fix” because they have all been sent to a shonky “mechanic”.


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To gain control of her ward Nurse Ratched ignores and challenges what her job description asks of her. Nurse Ratched hand picks her staff (black boys). A patient by the name of Taber is raped by the black boys just because he asks a feasible question which challenged Ratched’s authority. Rape may be considered the best way to strip ones self-esteem. The Nurse is aware he was raped, and does nothing. Does Nurse Ratched look at ‘rape’ as a form of control? If so, does the sanity of Nurse Ratched’s ways and Nurse Ratched herself need to be questioned?


R.P McMurphy is committed to the ward from a jail type farm. He is the ‘hero’ of this story. When he first walks in the door the Chief knew he was “different”, the Chief first describes him as having a “real mans laugh”, one that the Chief had not heard for years. It was this laugh and McMurphy’s simple presence that provided a ‘sane-like’ atmosphere that the ward had been lacking. It was not known that with a little bit of time this “red-headed hero” would cure the patients. McMurphy provided the patients with a sense of hope, protection and confidence that would soon boost their self-esteem greatly.


Chief Bromden’s lack of self-esteem would lead to him wanting to escape from ‘reality’. The ‘fog’ which surrounds him these times is used as a protection device, to hide. “When it gets thick enough you’re lost in it and cant let go, and be safe again.” But this all changes when McMurphy arrives. The fog begins to elevate out of the Chief’s reach and therefore he can’t use this as protection, he doesn’t need to. The Chief finally conquers the ‘fog’ when he shows everyone that he could actually speak and hear, after all the years that he had gone along with the “Combine’s” perception of him being deaf and dumb. This first happened when the Chief’s name was signed up for the fishing trip. “My name was there, the last put down.” At first Chief Bromden was scared of what everyone else would think, but later he thought the better of it. “It scared me some (them knowing)… to hell with that crap.” There is another scene when McMurphy and Chief are talking about how McMurphy will build him up “as big as a mountain” and they start talking about ladies. Chief unwarily gets an erection and McMurphy quickly points this out. “Why would you look at that, you have already started growing Chief.”


McMurphy had not only made an impact on Chief Bromden and his self-esteem, but he also helped all the other acute’s in the ward regain enough self-esteem needed for cure. The activities and actions that McMurphy planned were actually helping the patients, even though some were for his financial gain. As Harding said “What’s wrong with him making a little profit? We’ve all certainly got our money’s worth…”


The fishing trip scene is where the Chief notices that McMurphy succeeds in healing the patients. “I notice Harding collapsed beside McMurphy and is laughing too. And Scanlon… And Sefelt and the doctor, and all.” These were the first ‘real’ laughs they have had for years. They have all been “cured” in this scene.


One must wonder how Chief Bromden and the other patients would have been if McMurphy hadn’t been committed to the ward. Despite McMurphy’s death, he succeeds in his mission of setting the other patients free. Chief Bromden gains his size and confidence and now feels he can face ‘reality’ without retreating to his imagination due to this self-esteem. Also, almost all the other patients leave the hospital because they no longer need someone to follow. They have all learned from McMurphy to live on their own and have rejected the brainwashing of the “combine”.





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Conforming to Society

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Conforming to Society


In the “The True Face of Earth,” and “Hair Chronicles,” we find a contrasting effort by the authors, to conform to society. Nancy Whitley of “The True Face of Earth,” demonstrates a self-destructive need not to conform. As a youth, Nancy tried to portray her life and the life of her family as one agreeable to others; her attempt was unsuccessful. In “Hair Chronicles,” we find that Tabatha Rowley is lead down a path of self-destruction with her yearning to conform.


Nancy tried to conform to society as a youth. The mornings after her parents would fight; she would stand apart from the other children at the bus stop, afraid they might know about the fight that took place the previous night. Tabatha was taught from a very early age how to make excuses for unacceptable behavior. “Pete and Choo teased me because they like me, Mommy explained. When she pounded me, she did it out of love, Grandma drank to help her blood flow, and Auntie smoked weed so she could sleep” (Rowley 6). This expressed to Tabatha the extent in which some will go to fit into society.


Realizing that she was unable to comply with society’s commands, Nancy began to rebel. She did not care what others thought about her being promiscuous and at times gloated about it. Nancy smoked, became pregnant at a young age and dropped out of high


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Johnson school. As opposed to Nancy, Tabatha strived to conform to her surroundings. With her brother’s help, she taught herself to drink and smoke marijuana, which in her situation was conforming to the behavior of her surroundings. This was also expressed through her hairstyles and clothing.


Nancy’s rebellions against conforming to society lead her through many trials and tribulations. She caused herself a great deal of pain with her struggle to go against what society considers proper behavior. In prison, Tabatha began to realize the importance placed on conforming to society, conforming to a larger society, not just the surrounding in which she grew up. This realization was expressed through her lawyer’s approval of her cutting her dreadlocks.


In both stories we can evaluate how the demands placed on us by society has an impact on our lives, rather trying to conform or rebelling against it. We must never allow the approval of others to dictate our lives. Live by the standards that you set for yourself.





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Judah

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Throughout the Scriptures, there are several references to kings and rulers of the nation of Israel. But what really makes a difference in this significant historical “story” is whether the king was, very simply put, good or bad. The impact of the good king was as consequential as the impact of the bad king; however, they were both at two opposite extremes. It is important to know the good king from the bad, and to realize the magnitude of both kinds of reigns. The good king has three major characteristics he is filled with the spirit of the Lord, hence earning the title of “charismatic”, he is faithful to the covenant, and lastly he abides by the word of the Lord. The bad king, however, may have been charismatic at first, but loses the spirit of the Lord when he makes a bad decision, a concept similar to the ancient Chinese notion of a Mandate of Heaven. He does not conform to the covenant, and he does not abide by the word of the Lord.


Primarily, the charismatic quality is of top priority. The Lord is the judge on whether a person does or does not qualify as charismatic. Therefore, he chooses who will be the king of his people. An example of a good king is King Hezekiah. King Hezekiah was a descendant of Ahaz, and he actually started out as a king through dynasty, a dynasty that Ahaz was trying to establish. He commenced his reign as a bad king; he revised the political approach of his father Ahaz by appealing to Egypt, hence halting Assyrian expansion. His pragmatic approach, however, was scornfully criticized by the prophet Isaiah, who was extremely active and highly influential in Judah during this period. In Isaiah 11, he is known to say, Ha! Those who go down to Egypt for help and rely upon horses! They have put their trust in abundance of chariots, in vast numbers of riders, and they have not turned to the Holy One of Israel, they have not sought the Lord. Isaiah’s theo-political methodology stated that the Assyrian conquests were no more than an omen to the people to resume the worship of the Lord once more, and that attempts to rely on temporal military help was destined to fail. Hezekiah took Isaiah’s sensible advice and then had a complete change in thought. He started to do good deeds, and the king of Israel was once more filled with the spirit of Yahweh and becoming a follower of the exemplar-king, David. Hezekiah abided by the word of the Lord by living through the Torah and obeying the preaching of Isaiah, the prophet of that time. He began to renew the worship of Yahweh after the long period of time in which people had worshipped false gods, idols, and ba’als. He abolished the shrines and smashed the pillars and cut down the sacred post. He also broke into pieces the bronze serpent which Moses had made, for until that time the Israelites had been offering sacrifices to it ( Kings 184). Simultaneously, he brought about once again the important tradition of Passover. This was a great advancement religiously for the Judeans because it showed a renewal in obedience in God as well as in serving the people, which is the last requirement of a constitutional Judean king. Chron 01,6 talks about how a great crowd assembled at Jerusalem to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month, a very great congregation. They set to and removed the altars that were in Jerusalem, and they removed all the incense stands and threw them into Wadi Kidron...There was great rejoicing in Jerusalem, for since the time of King Solomon son of David of Israel nothing like it had happened in Jerusalem. Serving God and the people by obeying God and the Torah is the best way to be a good ruler.


Ahaz, however, was a bad king. Firstly, Yahweh did not appoint him king; therefore he was not a charismatic leader. Being a charismatic leader means that one is filled with God’s spirit, so they are like David faithful and true to Yahweh. He also makes certain that his nation is a nation set apart from other nations and that his nation does not get embroiled in other nations’ affairs. Secondly, He did not obey the Lord. In 746 BC, Tiglath Pileser III of Assyria had the dream of conquering the world, and coincidentally had the power and finances to do it as well. He began by conquering the Babylonians, then attacked all the tribes around the Tigres and Euphrates Rivers, including the Chaldeans, the Arabs, the Arameans, and several of the Persian tribes as well. Syria, one of the “sleeping giants” that Israel was warned about during the reign of Jehu, is starting to “awaken.” Syria attacks Israel while Judah is fighting Israel, so to get Syria out of the way, Israel sends tribute to Assyria, and Tiglath Peleser III, to engage with Syria so that they will be out of the way whilst Israel is entangled in its own civil war. Assyria defeats Syria, but the Israelites are still obligated, or to be more to the point, forced to keep paying Assyria tribute. Ahaz, instead of quashing this tribute as soon as possible, relents to paying the tribute instead of taking care of his anawim, the poorest of the poor in Israel. This portrays how Ahaz does not follow fidelity to the covenant because he does not take care of his people, especially the people who are most in need of his aid. Ahaz goes to the point of even worshipping the gods of Assyria and building the gods of Tiglath Pileser an alter and putting it in a Hebrew temple. Ahaz is no longer worshipping Yahweh in his temple. He sacrificed his son to a foreign god through a practice called immolation, which is used in special cases when someone important is sacrificed through cremation. This is known as a blatant act of false worship, for Yahweh has never since the time of Abraham and Isaac asked anyone to sacrifice any of his people. Lastly, Ahaz is a bad king because he does not listen to his prophet or live the Torah, and therefore does not follow the word of the Lord. Isaiah is the prophet during the reign of Ahaz. He was a part of the Jerusalem aristocracy. This, though, did not prevent him from being an outspoken mouthpiece of the anawim and common people, who were being victimized by the rampant corruption of the ruling class. Isaiah says of Ahaz’ treatment of the anawim, What need have I of all your sacrifices? says the Lord... Put your evil doings away from my sight... Devote yourselves to justice... Uphold the rights of the orphan; defend the cause of the widow(Isaiah 111-17). Ahaz does not listen to Isaiah, but goes on with his maltreatment of the helpless and tribute to the corrupt nations. Ahaz has all of the attributes that make him a prime example of a terrible and even fraudulent king, since he was not called upon by God put took it upon himself to become the king of Israel.


There is a conspicuous distinction between the good king and the bad king. The good king follows in the footsteps of David, the exemplar king. The bad king cogitates thoughts reminiscent of Ahab and other unfaithful kings of infidelity. The good kings have proven that there is still hope for the Chosen People of the Lord, and through their charismatic ways, fidelity to the covenant, and inert adherence to the word of the Lord, they will prevail.


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Examine the role of vegetation in coastal development in the following habaitats.

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a) Sand dunes


b) Salt-marshes


Vegetation plays an important role in coastal development as it leads to the succession and development of coastal features such as sand dunes and salt marshes, which are important ecosystems, and both are becoming increasingly protected by their local councils to prevent them from diminishing (as is becoming an apparent trend) due to the interference of humans.


The Morfa Harlec sand dune system in North Wales (see map one) is a perfect example of the role in which vegetation has played in sand dune succession. Figure one shows the stages in succession over the sand dune ecosystem, which occur over a long period of time. The annotations show the situation at each sere in the succession, and how the environment has changed from what was once all unstable sand, and a very uninviting environment for any plant to survive in, let alone to thrive in.


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Figure three is a simplified diagram of succession, this seems to discount the role of vegetation in succession, suggesting that a system of succession can be the result of any type of sediment or little allowing sand to build up behind it. However, this is not completely the case. This is a beginning, as the pioneer species on the dune does need some form of shelter from the harsh winds, so as a small embryo dune begins to build up, Marram grass, blown on the wind, may take root here. Generally only one out of one hundred embryo dunes that begin to form are eventually successful, but once the Marram grass begins to spread across the dune, its roots hold the ground together making it more stable, and permanent.


Figure two shows the ways in which Marram grass has adapted so that it can thrive in the type of extreme environment that the embryo dunes pose. It grows quickly, so that it is soon well established, and has long lateral and horizontal roots for good anchorage so that it will not be torn up by the wind. The leaves are curled, with its pores facing inwards, so that there is little loss of rare water through transpiration, and so that the leaves are not damaged by the harsh sunlight and salt water on the wind.


As a Marram grass plant dies and begins to decompose, it is adding organic matter to the soil that was not there before, thus making it more fertile. The very presence of this grass on the embryo dune makes a sheltered area behind it, making an environment, along with organic matter, that is not as harsh as the embryo dune. This allows for another stage in succession, as other plants, albeit ones that still need a high salt tolerance, can now begin to take root in this more fertile environment. This continues onwards, more plants can live in the environment; more plants decompose when they die adding more organic matter to the soil. This then means that when it rains, instead of the water simply washing straight through the sand, it is retained within the organic matter, so the role of vegetation also had an impact on water retention, as well as changing the shape of the land, and adding more organic matter into the sand. As this continues, the ground begins to consist of increasing amounts of organic matter, until there is soon only a small proportion of sand to organic matter. Eventually, the initial habitation of Marram grass cases succession to the point where the seres reach their optimum vegetation, which is woodland, as can be seen in figure four, which is a cross section of the Morfa Harlec sand dune system.


Table one shows the adaptations of several plants, and how they have subsequently affected the environment that they inhabit, causing it to change, and, in this case, causing succession to occur.


This is proof of the large role that vegetation plays in coastal development. Without that initial habitation of Marram grass, that whole succession would not have occurred. Perhaps a small piece of debris would have caused a small embryo dune to develop, but it would soon have been blown away as it is too unstable. Vegetation holds the sand together with its roots, and when it eventually decomposes, adds organic matter to the soil, to give it some substance. Therefore, without this habitation of vegetation, sand dune succession would not occur, and the coastal environment would be deprived of this valuable and rich ecosystem.


Vegetation seems to play a role in the development of a variety of environments, depending on the situation in the area. Another habitat that forms as a result of vegetation is the salt marsh. This form of succession is an example of a Halosere, and develops where there are high concentrations of salt.


Salt marshes can develop in a variety of coastal areas. A commonplace where they are found is behind spits (see figure seven for information on how spits form). A spit provides a stable environment for a salt marsh to develop. (A spit is simply a build up of sand as a result of transport and deposition of longshore drift.) It shelters the marsh from prevailing winds and strong currents, and, as the term ‘marsh’ implies, still allows a large part of the vegetation to remain submerged in salt water, this again means that the vegetation must be very hardy, and adapted to such harsh environments, such as eel-grass (whose aquatic roots help to stabilise the silt and trap debris), marsh samphire and rice grass, which are predominant pioneer species of salt marshes.


Another area where salt marshes develop is near estuaries, where silt and mud are deposited. Initially the area is inhabited by a pioneer species (such as the ones mentioned above), which are adapted to survive long periods of time over which they will be immersed in water. However, as they begin to decompose, and also cause silt to gather, the level of soil begins to rise and the ground gets drier as it rises above the water level. It is then able to support a succession of plants, as figure five (a cross section through a salt marsh) shows. As can be seen in figure five, the optimum vegetation can be reached over a period of time (maritime forest) as a result of the succession that would not have been able to take place without the initial habitation of pioneer species of vegetation. This again is proof of the important role that vegetation plays in the development of coastal areas.


In America, up until the mid 170’s, about 5% of salt marshes were drained, as they were thought to be wasteland that could be put to better uses. However, recently people are beginning to realise their value as an important and endangered ecosystem, and are beginning to ensure that they are protected, and prevented from being destroyed by human impact as they have been doing. This again, is another testament to the importance of vegetation in coastal development.


Overall, it seems that vegetation is a very important factor in coastal development. Without it, many important coastal ecosystems that develop as a result of vegetation succession would simply not exist, and the coastal environment would be deprived of their benefits completely. Humans are becoming more aware of the affects that their actions have on the coastal environment, and even in America, areas such as salt marshes are becoming increasingly protected. People are beginning to appreciate their value as eco-tourist attractions, although even this can have negative effects on the environment as a whole. Many local governments are simply fencing off whole areas of salt marsh and sand dunes, to prevent the delicate succession from being trampled by humans, and even other animals. Again, it is important to remember that these coastal features would no be here without the vegetation that develops there over a long period of time, and many types of coastal plant are also being named as protected species, as their importance in the development of coastal features is recognised.





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The World Dance conecert in Mallorca

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Hello! Im going to talk about the world Dance. This is the name of the concer who was celebrated in Santa Ponsas beach.


There were many popular singers and everyone song several songs of their albums.


I Went to see it with my friends, and we stayed there until the concert had finished.


Many people went to this concert because the singer were good. I like very much the concert but I dont like that many people drank a lot and the had problems with the other people.


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One example of a singer is Agus


Angus Young


Born March 1, 15 [note see item Angus Age] (Aries the Ram) in Glasgow, Scotland. Angus and his brother Malcolm co-founded AC/DC almost ten years ago. On stage Angus still wears his schoolboy uniform (shorts and striped socks included), while playing a superb electric guitar. Hes especially well known for his vivid onstage mannerisms - he wont miss a note while roaming, falling, kicking, running, writhing, and sweating...a complete showman! Angus co-authors all of AC/DCs m ...


other singer is Id prefer to remain a mystery. I never like to give my background and, anyway, I make it all up different everytime Im asked. Andy Warhol


Andy Warhol. was born as Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh Pennsylvani,a on August 6, 18. Growing up Andy lived a drab youth, filled with hardship, illness, feelings of inferiority and a lack of glamour which he was sure to make up for later in life. After highschool Andy attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh.


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Conflict in Indo China

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Key feature The significance of the French Defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu


Worst military defeat in colonial history


Tremendous implications locally and globally


(a) Significance for Vietnam


Cheap University Papers on Conflict in Indo China

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End of French rule in Vietnam


Demonstrates power of nationalism Vs foreign invader


Support the VM- peasants (power they had over the peasants)


VM controls areas in Viet, Highlands- Chinese Boarder, Red Delta- Mekong River Delta, and Northern provinces of Laos


(b) Global Significance


French defeat seen as Communist victory Vs Democracy


US furious see defeat as the monolithic giant- Communism spreading into other nations


USA refuses to participate in discussions of Vietnam’s future at Geneva Conference


US interpret the victory as a victory for China and communism rather than nationalism


Chinese see the victory as concern- don’t want strong Vietnam to their south


(c) The Effect of DBP on the Geneva Conference


Vietnamese believe they can negotiate terms of their own rule-position of strength


Communism and Democratic powers wary each other- more important than actual military victory at DBP


China worries about Vietnamese strength


French wanted out


Key Feature The Significance of the Geneva Conference and the Failure to Hold Elections in 156


Most decisions result of secret talks, France, China and USSR-power brokers.


Attempts were made to deny politically what had happened militarily


Ngo Dinh Diem Prime Minister State of Vietnam 16 June


The Significance of the Geneva Accords for Vietnam


The terms of cease-fire between France and DRV were


Vietnam temporarily divided at 17th parallel


Period of months legal migration


General elections held across both zones July 156- reunify Vietnam


Neither zone to sign military alliances, receive military aid from abroad


The Significance of the Geneva Accords for Cambodia and Laos


Royal Govts In Cambodia & Laos independence upheld


000 communists of Cambodia had no voice at Geneva. The KPRP weakened thousands of its members went into exile in Hanoi.


Accords were between France and DRV


US Alternative to the Accords


Geneva Accords were to prove only a breathing space between the two wars.


SEATO est. on 14 NATO (National Atlantic Treaty Organisation) collective defence system to contain Soviet and Chinese expansion


Nations newly independent from colonial role enticed, economic, technological and military aid line up with one superpower against another.


The Significance of the Consequences of the Failure to Hold Free Elections in Vietnam in 156


Neither Diem nor Ho was in the position in 154 to rule the whole of Viet. Both preferred their control of their respective areas before tackling the issue of reunification.


If elections weren’t held � the Viet had left behind large no’s of arms and armaments hidden in the Sth


The Elections of 156 Were Not Held


Diem and US knew that Diem would lose, as Diem’s regime was very unpopular


Led to growth of anti Diem activity in the Sth and gradual from the North


Led to US trying to save Diem’s regime in the name of democracy


Key Feature The nature of Political, Social, Economic and Military Policies Within North and South Vietnam and their Consequences


Consolidation of regimes North and South


North Viet- Ho Chi Minh- President


Pham Van Dong- Prime Minister


South Viet- Bao Dai- Emperor


Diem- appointed Premier


Political Structure in The Democratic Republic of Vietnam


The Vietnam Workers Party est. a peoples democracy a tightly disciplined one party state.


President Ho Chi Minh


Prime Minister Pham Van Dong


Vietminh Leader Le Duan


Chairman National Assembly Truong Chinh


Minster Of Defence Vo Nguyen Giap


Negotiator for Central Committee Le Duc Tho


This collective leadership gave continuity and stability.


North Vietnam Overview


Thousands flee to the South-Buddhist, Catholics, Wealthy, and Intellectuals


Implementation of Communism was very brutal 154-57 most destructive


Ho admits mistakes and implements new policies


160 Nth Viet changed from famine- fastest growing economy in SEA


Economic Policy in the DRV


Land reform


Sth Viet produced a surplus of rice


Irrigation fields damaged by years of war-many who went south were trained technicians


DRV lowest per capita production of rice in Asia


Over enthusiastic revolutionaries confiscated land with violence and terror and sought to meet quotas sat for each region, injustice was done and innocent people died


Peasant revolt when officials were demoted, and Ho apologies to the nation.


Rectification campaign Govt resumed its socialist policies 160 power of the landed gentry was broken.


Industry


Former French coal, cement and textile industries nationalized.


Middle classes left to run smaller firms Govt regulated pay rates, prices, quantities produced, sources of raw materials and marketing


Aid from China, USSR Eastern Europe develop heavy industrial base


State Planning controlled the economy-yr plans, 5yr plans


Transport doubled, skilled training and education opportunities increased


Women part of labour force and of the army


The Army


From 157 Giap expanded and modernized the army, equipping it with Russian and Chinese weapons


Est. commando forces, tank corps political indoctrination was considered as important as weapon training.


From 157 conscription again authorized, ranks were introduced and personnel began to receive pay


Diem


Leader of South Vietnam from 154-16


Conservative and a staunch catholic


Vehemently anti com and anti French


US backed Diem considered the only one to resist the spread of communism


Diem’s Repressive Rule


Faced many problems, South Vietnam lacked any sense of unity


The people had been faced with almost 15yrs of war


He had to consolidate his power and he had to solve the problems of war torn South Vietnam


Methods Used By Diem To Consolidate His Regime


Uses Relatives (nepotism)


Appointed own members of his family- prominent Govt positions


Relatives were corrupt, became wealthy and had incredible power


Uses Loyal Friends/ Colleagues


Appoints friends in positions of power


Appoints only loyal men to lead army, uses bribery appointment based on loyalty not talent


Attempts To Destroy Factions


Govt. only controlled Saigon and other major cities; Rest of the country was under control of the Vietminh, bandits or private armies of a no. Of factions


155 Diem confronted and crushed the largest factions, which were against him.


155 the Denunciation Campaign


Main aim to destroy Vietminh who still controlled much of the countryside and many of the provincial capitals


Peasants encouraged to denounce anyone who


Had fought Vs the Fr


Had a relative resistance


Was sympathetic to the VM


Many peasants protect themselves by denouncing neighbors


Approx 0% VM cells destroyed or sent underground


Strict and Brutal Security


Used to reinforce Diem’s control-did not feel like he had to cultivate popular appeal


Characteristics of Diem’s Repressive Regime


No opposition to Diem’s regime allowed


One party state led by an oligarchy


Gives important positions to family and loyal friends


Favours Catholic minority-top jobs-army and Govt


Land redistribution


Enforces strict and brutal security measures to reinforce his control Sth Viet


Strict censorship of domestic press and attempts to censor international press


Public meetings banned


Willing to accept US aid but not advice


RESULTS


Diem’s control struggle Vs factionalism= reconstruction and industrialisation of South Vietnam


154-16 Diem managed to alienate virtually all-non-catholic groups in South Vietnam


157 VC starts to rebuild Guerilla warfare increases and assassination campaign


A Succession of Governments in South Vietnam


The rotation of governments with conspiracies and coups by unknown and unqualified leaders was to leave the USA with no valid or credible administration to support


America looking for a ruthless leader who could rival Ho Chi Minh.


Key Feature Nature and Consequences of Infiltration from North to South Vietnam


The situation Deteriorates War Begins


156 Diem refuses to hold the reunification elections


Reasons 1. Had not signed Geneva Accords-not bound by them


. Conditions in the NTH would not allow fro free and fair elections to be held


. Probable that he and the USA thought the communists would win


Nth Viet view refusal as Diem US conspiracy


Nth had hidden caches of arms and ammunition + 10 000 cadres who had remained behind in the Sth after Geneva. Many in the Sth had supported the Vietminh because they were nationalist and anti-French. They now support the VC


With Nth approval VC start assassination campaign Vs govt officials. 15-161 assassinations rose from 100 to 4000 per year.


March 158 Pham Van Dong made proposals to the Sth for troop reductions and trade relations but Diem refused to discuss any such steps towards reunification.


Guerilla warfare increased and VC attack ARVN (sth Viet army) outpost in 15


THE NLF DEC 160 Nth created the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam.


Peasant workers, intellectuals, Buddhists, legal political parties, Montagnards, women and radical revolutionaries.


The NLF served purposes


1. Allowed non communists to join the insurgency without having to be members of the communist party


. It allowed the Communist leaders in the Nth to unobtrusively direct the war


The NLF meant that initiative to re-unify the two Vietnams came from the South


THE NLF DEMANDED


Democratic freedom


Land to the tiller


Independence from imperialist domination


Peaceful unification with North Vietnam


NLF groups were encouraged to be self-sufficient economically and militarily and to use family connections to infiltrate hostile villages


The greatest weapon of the NLF in mobilizing support was the promise of land reform.


Villagers involved in sabotage or assassination squads formed paramilitary units, regular soldiers formed military units.


The creation of the NLF increased the momentum of the conflict. The Nth increased its control over the NLF in 161 and the war = intensified


1 January 16 Hanoi openly announced the formation of the Liberation Armed Forces


Diem called the NLF the Vietcong.


Le Duan General Secretary of Vietminh his single-minded struggle to unify the two Vietnamese and his role as intermediary remained shadowy and secret.


The ten men Politburo of the Vietminh divided the South into five zones and a special Saigon zone.


The Peoples Revolutionary Party took over non-communist groups and infiltrated every section of society.


What began, as a political struggle now became an armed struggle or insurgency? The aim was to bring about the fall of Diem’s Government and to create conditions for a general communist uprising.


161 NLF controlled most of the countryside at night and about / during the day. 4000 Govt officials, village headmen and teachers were selectively assassinated.


The Relationship Between the North and the Southern Insurgents (VC) and the Nature of the Insurgency


The 150’s


Many communists’ cells either remained in the South or went first to the north to receive further training and political instructions and then returned to the south.


Established themselves armed themselves for the struggle


The Vietcong were very difficult to detect and combat. They were indistinguishable from the peasant population among whom they hid some were even government officials.


157 17 major insurgents each unit had 50-00men. Equipped with normal infantry weapons. The main support for the insurgents came from the dissident remnants of the private armies of the sects.


The Nth (DRV) reluctant to engage in armed struggle or to provoke the sponsor of Diem’s Government the USA.


Wanted to consolidate their regime and preferred a political solution


The 160’s


Third national Congress of the Vietnam Workers Party in the North approved armed struggle. Believe that its regime could afford to divert the resources needed to support a war of national liberation.


To direct the war COSVN the central Office for South Vietnam was EST. Party Politburo orders came from Giap. Weapons came south along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.


The opening of the Ho Chi Minh Trail supply route through Laos and Cambodia helped the new phase of the war involving the North. The communists used the HCM trail as their main supply route.


The creation of the NLF increased the momentum of the conflict as the NTH increased its control, the war intensified.


164 the VC posing a serious problem in the south.


1. The ability of the government of South Vietnam to defend itself against increasing northern incursions and insurgent activity was rapidly declining


. The communist were seeking South Vietnam’s complete collapse.


This led to the massive increase in US involvement from 165. As US involvement increased so did membership of the NLF/VC


US involvement now meant escalation of the war and the use of ground troops. This meant that peasants previously untouched by war, were affected. They were bombed, their villages were searched and often destroyed, and their relatives were killed.


Concept of imperialism


Key Feature The Concepts of ‘Containment’ and the Domino Theory as Applied to Vietnam and Their Impact on US Policy Making


The US saw Sth Viet as important for containing communism


The Rollback Policy


US policy aims for Sth Viet set out 156. Sth Viet referred to as Free Viet.


Based on the following assumptions


Absolute belief in the domino theory


Belief that they had to support Diem no matter what


Belief that the Nth Viet backed by the Chinese army would invade the Sth. Hey did not believe that there would be south Viet communism involved in a guerilla war in order to bring about communism.


The last point meant that the US army, which took over the job of reorganising the Sth Viet Army, trained this army to deal with conventional warfare- not guerilla attacks.


This is incredibly significant.


THE COLD WAR AND VIETNAM


1. Cuban blockade 15


. Berlin Wall 161


. Cuban Missile crisis 16


Soviet Union foreign policy made a priority of supporting HCM and preventing American imperialism in Asia.


SIX PRESIDENTS


HARRY S. TRUMAN PRESIDENT 145-5


Containment March 147 Truman’s Government formalized its policy of containment.


The Truman Doctrine undertook to support free peoples resisting armed minorities or outside pressures.


Formulated for communist subversion in post WWII Greece and Turkey


Applied to Indochina, Indonesia and Philippines


June 150 US aid stepped up


USA called for formation of a Vietnamese National Army in South Vietnam


DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER PRESIDENT 15-61


April 154 Eisenhower publicised the American Defence Chiefs Falling Domino Theory (150)


Argued the fall of Indochina would inevitable lead to the fall of other states in SEA


June 154 400 military advisory assistance group and 40CIA undercover men entered Saigon.


SEATO


Eisenhower’s Govt formed SEATO SEPT 154


Gave aid to South Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, Pakistan, Greece and Spain


January 155 South Vietnam brought into US dollar!


JOHN F. KENNEDY PRESIDENT 161-6


Increased US involvement in Vietnam


Became part of the Cold War confrontation


Aid was increased in Nov 161


Buddhist protests in South Vietnam Oct 16 Kennedy withdrew some aid


Became evident that the USA wanted to defeat communism much more than the Sth Viet govt did.


LYNDON B. JOHNSON PRESIDENT 16-68


Great Society Legislation, promised a national health care system, wider civil rights for blacks, housing development, school aid and war on poverty


The war expanded, bombing of the North began, US troops were sent in.


Vietnam had destroyed Johnson’s presidency


RICHARD M. NIXON PRESIDENT 168-74


Brought the involvement in Vietnam to an end, his administration was responsible for war spreading into Cambodia.


GERALD FORD PRESIDENT 174-75


Declared the Indochina war finished April 175


Key Feature The nature and impact of growing US intervention in Indochina for the US, the peoples of Indochina, and the immediate region


The Americans saw Vietnam as an important element in their policy of containing Communism.


Massive US Economic Aid


Gave Diem free rein


161 he had set up a clearly totalitarian regime


Diem accepted the US dollar but generally rejected the advice


Much of the aid was channeled into the military and security forces.


It is most unlikely that the RVN and Diem would have survived without this massive US aid that had been given to the STH since 15.


Kennedy’s Dilemma the Cold War Context


He had to prove his credentials as a Cold War warrior


Cold war tensions increased, He saw Vietnam purely in terms of the global war of communism Vs Democratic


Vietnam was to be one place where Kennedy could restore US credibility


He had no concept of the importance of civilian support for guerilla warfare


Huge Increase in US Military Advisers Under Kennedy


161 Diem requested additional military support from the US. Halted at first but was concerned with the image.


Kennedy requested that Diem share the economic, political and military decisions making with the US, but this request was ignored


Showed the peasantry how to provide greater hygiene, agriculture and education.


The aim to increase the support of the villagers for the RVN


The strategic Hamlet program was introduced with US advisors assisting the RVN


The increase in advisors was kept secret because it was outside decisions made at Geneva.


Secrecy and escalation to protect US credibility


The VC not the RVN continued to gain support of the villagers.


The VC were seen as Viet fighting for Viet independence


The Buddhist Revolt


Catholics were given the best GOVT jobs and top army positions and the best land.


While Buddhist had to take time off from their farming to dig ditches and build their own concentration camps


May 16 refused permission to display Buddhist flags or have meetings on the anniversary of Buddha’s birthday.


Burn them-selves as public suicide.


President Kennedy greatly influenced by the suicides.


He looked for ways in which the US could withdraw from Vietnam.


US Political Involvement in South Vietnam Assassinations


1 Nov the coup began and troops began to move into Saigon, they called on Diem and Nhu to resign they refused. They escaped and were found in a Catholic Church. They were placed in an armored carrier and on the way back to the palace Diem was shot in the head and Nhu was stabbed to death.


A great amount of planning and thought went into the coup that removed Diem but neither the generals nor the Americans had given much thought to the type of government.


Plotting and personal intrigues became more important then the need to join together to save the country.


The Vietcong continued to increase its influence.


The Political Situation in the South Deteriorates


After the assassinations it is believed that Kennedy began looking for ways to get out of Viet.


There was a feeling that the US had become too involved in Vietnamese politics and that this had contributed to Diem’s death.


In the next 0 months Sth Viet underwent 10 changes of Govt as the generals deposed each other.


By mid 164 the Viet Cong were launching attacks at positions only 10km from the centre of Saigon.


Summary The Situation Deteriorates into War


US Kennedy sends more aid, military equipment and advisers. US largely engage in anti-guerilla activity. He is concerned about international image of US VS Communism. He also requests Diem share economic, political and military decisions making with the US Request ignored


Late 161 US introduce defoliants and 16 the helicopter introduced to help war effort


16 Buddhist protests put down violently


Generals approach US re removal of Diem and his brother= collapse of support of regime on almost all levels


US GOVT gives tactic support coup occurs NOV


A revolutionary Military council was established with Gen Minh as chief of state.


164 was characterized by political instability, increasing insurgency and an increase in US commitment.


164/5 Sth Viet is on the verge of political and military collapse


President Johnson


Ideas on Vietnam were similar in a number of ways to those of Kennedy


The belief that the US could not withdraw, as this would be interpreted worldwide as a sign of weakness


The view that all communist countries were conspiring against the US


The lack of clear policy n how to defeat Communism and what would replace it


The attempt to defeat ideas (Communism, unity, nationalism, anti imperialism) with weapons.


164 the US realized that the VC controlled much of Sth Viet and that the North was steadily building up its infiltration of the South.


The US estimated that the communists would win by the end of 165


The Nth began sending troops down the Ho Chi Minh trial to build up the main force to administer its coup de grace.


Johnson’s major problem during 164 was that he faced an election in NOV; he did not want to be seen using too much force in Vietnam.


Throughout 164 the Pentagon drew up plans to escalate the war by bombing Nth Vietnam and sending in US ground troops.


Trsek Reasons for US Escalation


After 10 yrs of training and military supplies and a large increase in the number of its troops, the army of South Vietnam had been unable to crush Vietcong and the few North Vietnamese forces in the south


Trsek believes that the Sth Vietnamese Govt could not be forced to carry out reforms by the US could have made its continued support contingent on a broadly based program of national social, economic and political reform.


The United States government had been trapped by its own rhetoric t had to go on


Gulf of Tonkin Incident and Resolution August 164


March 164 Pentagon refined plans for strategic bombing of North Vietnam in two phases


Retaliatory strikes against northern military bases


Intensified bombing of railways, roads, industrial complexes and training camps would follow guerilla sanctuaries in Laos and Cambodia.


Johnson’s aides began drafting a Congressional Resolution.


Without such a resolution the strategic bombing under the US constitution would require a formal declaration of war. The draft resolution was ready by 5 May 164


Johnson approached Ho Chi Minh with promises of aid to build large hydro electricity schemes if North Vietnam withdrew assistance from the Vietcong


Johnson dreaded becoming the first US president to lose a war. Washington began seeking ways to take the war to North Vietnam.


The destroyer Northern patrol boas fired upon Maddox a ship in the Tonkin Gulf on August 164. The USA sent bombers to stand by at bases in Thailand August. Next day during a thunderstorm the Maddox and a second US ship C Turner Joy reported possible attempts to prevent their asserting freedom of the seas though no actual visual sighting was made.


US planes carried out retailtory bombing 5 August and Johnson appeared on national TV. “ Take all necessary measures” to prevent further aggression.


Tonkin Gulf Resolution was passed in Congress by 88 votes to . 85% of the American population approved of the measures.


Key Feature The commitment of US and Australian ground troops and the social, political and military impact of their involvement for Indochina


The Commitment of Ground Troops


The Enclave Program- The US had approved the use of American troops in a defensive role to protect the bases from VC attack.


Their role was strictly defined and limited to defend the Danang airbases and its perimeter, NOT to engage in day-to-day action Vs the VC.


Westmoreland very quickly changed tactics to offensive rather than defensive and official policy endorsed a more active use of US troops.


It was estimated that at the end of 165 00’000 marines would be needed for the defence bases.


Rolling thunder was not deterring the North and that the South Vietnamese Govt was showing all signs of imminent collapse. If the US did not send troops and in large numbers South Vietnam would be lost.


May 156 US commander in Vietnam General William Westmoreland asked his president for 180’000 men to prevent South Vietnam from falling to the communist.


During 156 America’s allies also began supplying forces when South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia and New Zealand joined the many flags program.


Escalation


During the next years the level of US troops in South Vietnam rose steadily.


America took over the war allocating the lesser role of protecting civilians and military installations to the South Vietnamese army while the Americans searched for and fought the enemy.


Within years the USA had transformed South Vietnam with roads, bridges, giant fuel depots and warehouses, helicopter pads, airfields, deep draught harbors, submarine cable links to Washington, clubs, snack bars, blue jeans, coke. By January 16 the peak of US Commitment there were 54000 service personnel in Sth Viet.


As the War dragged on voices in America and overseas grew in their condemnation of American involvement.


As the casualties’ rose and the end came no closer an anti war movement began and grew in strength.


By the end of 167 Westmoreland was publicly stating that he thought victory was in view.


AUSTRALIA; S INVOLVEMNT IN VIETNAM 16-7


What led to Australia’s participation?


Threats to Australian security seemed to increase with the 14 est. of the People’s Republic of China and the 150 Korean War.


Australia would not openly oppose anti-colonialism or Asian nationalism, so emphasis was placed on the anti communist nature of foreign policy.


From 15 Australia gave aid to Indochina.


Feb 155 our Govt. signed SEATO undertaking to protect South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia if requested by the governments concerned.


Australian Involvement An Overview


Australia certainly wanted to help America in return for its own possible future security needs.


In Nov 161 The USA asked for Australian assistance in South Vietnam and the Sth Vietnamese Govt requested aid from Australia.


Anticipating the need to enlarge the armed forces for commitments in Malaya and Vietnam, the Australian Govt announced conscription by birthday ballot on 10 Nov 164.


Menzies announced on April 165 that Australia would be sending an infantry battalion to South Vietnam. “The takeover of South Vietnam would be a direct military threat to Australia and all the countries of South and South East Asia. It must be seen as a thrust by Communist China between the Indian and Pacific oceans.


The Nature of Australian Participation


The first battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment arrived in Vietnam in June 165 and was attached to the US forces in the defence of the Bien Hoa Base.


The Australian forces were engaged in clearing operations and in pacification and resettlement schemes.


After winning the election Harold Holt increased Australia’s commitment to 600 personnel including RAAF and RAN units.


Australia’s fiercest battle was at Long Tan 18 August 166.


With the uprisings of the January February 168 TeT offensive, Australian troops were engaged in not only restoring order in Phuoc Tuy but also in assisting the Americans to protect Bien Hoa and Long Binh.


A complex mixture of invasion by the Nth and uprisings within the towns and villages of the South confronted Australian forces.


The Australian Govt announced phased withdrawal in March 170.


The Team


10.5 years later they returned home Dec 17 under the Whitlam Govt


Conscription was then abolished


The Extent of Australia’s Commitment?


Australias Commitment was miniscule compared with the massive American effort.


Height of their strength Australian men numbered 800.


The major Australian commitment was the Australian task Force between May 166 and Nov 171. Located in Phuoc Tuy province, Australian role was to gain control of the province and to deny the VC access to villagers.


The war became increasingly unpopular at home and a strong anti war movement began to voice its discontent.





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