Dell Computer Corp. Strategy Plan

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Dell has a broad product development scope, ranging from home PCs to products for businesses, such as notebooks, network servers and workstations. The market for PCs targeted for all ages such as kids, teenagers, corporate and institutional customers. As far as this particular strategy plan is concerned, Dell will develop and provide various choices for different individuals to cater their needs and satisfactions. For instance, kids and teenagers will go for high-end systems so that they can enjoy games and multimedia activities such as collecting video, audio and image files.

The business-used products however, it could well be easier for the market to deploy for all business-critical applications, including three-dimensional computer-aided design, digital content creation, software development, financial/economic modelling, e-mail, database and high-performance computing environments. Not to forget, Dell has also developed other products and accessories such as cameras, monitors, projectors, software, memory, notebook accessories, printers and handhelds. Then again, these would well widen the market scope for all consumers.

Dell has a number of distinctive competences. First of all, the company Dell was the first PC manufacturer to cut out the middleman and sell PC’s directly to consumers. The ability to continue to improve infrastructure (personnel and information systems) has made Dell to continually increase its operational efficiencies as the so-called “Price for Performance”. For product design wise, Dell was the first to come up with black-casing PC. This superior design attracted many consumers and also other competitive rivals like (IBM, Compaq and Hewlett Packet. Dell utilizes the Internet (E-Commerce) for procurement, management, and distribution. More importantly, Dell is the low price leader in the PC market, they can consistently under price rivals and also support programs tailored to customer needs such as customisation, service and support, and latest technology.



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Movie

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Name Matt

Submitted 04..0

Word Count 56

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I got a B

Movies

Many people go to the movies. The movies are an escape into a fantasy world. Everyone has a different preference on what kind of movie is the best. Romance, horror, action, and comedy are different types of movies. The kind of movie someone goes to see can give clues to what kind of person they are.

People who prefer horror films obviously like to be grossed out or like to be frightened. The horror fans probably tend to enjoy suspense and anxiety. One might suspect these people love to go on frightening roller coaster rides or do other things that would cause suspense and anxiousness. People of this nature might enjoy things that most people would not, considering the amount of gore produced in many horror films. For example, some people watch surgeries on TV. These shows contain blood and things disturbing to others. It would make sense to say that the person who has no problem with the gore in the movies could probably watch and enjoy a surgery on TV.

Comedy, most people enjoy going to the movies and laughing. Although most people do enjoy a comedy here and there, some people try to be like the characters in them. These people love to laugh and try to make others laugh whenever possible. Sometimes this is a good thing and one would not mind being around them because they are actually funny. Nevertheless, some of them are down right annoying. If someone tells them they are annoying then that just means to them that they have to try harder to get people to laugh. People who love comedy always seem to love going out and having fun with their life. These types of people rarely get mad either.

People who enjoy going out and living up life probably watch action adventure type movies. The ones who like these movies would probably get a kick out of being chased by the police in a car. Risky habits such as doing things that are against the law and hoping they dont get caught could be a trait of a person who likes action adventure movies also. Another thing they might participate in is extreme sports like bungie jumping or skydiving. They might watch the news on TV and hope that a big story with action might come in. Over all they seek what they see in the movies.

Women seem to love romance movies. Men may also enjoy these types of movies but the over sensitive loving nature of the movies seems to keep them at bay. For example, if a person were to go to the movies they would probably never see a single male walk into a romance movie. However, you would see many men who have girlfriends with them walking into a romance movie. People who go see these movies are usually in relationships or they go in hopes of creating one.

Movies can make a whole persons life. Movies can fascinate and entertain us. The movies we choose to fascinate and entertain us could tell someone just what type of person are or could be.



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Tortilla Flat

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Tortilla Flat


A. Identify at least three conflicts in the novel that involves the protagonist or main character. Explain how each conflict was resolved.


1. Man vs. Society In this conflict, it was Danny vs. anybody that was not in his immediate circle of friends. The conflict was resolved when he for once felt whole, when he realized that his friends were all he needed.


. Man vs. Self This conflict stemmed from when Danny first got his houses, he started to feel the pressure of being a home owner and a landlord. The pressure soon got to be so much and he had to relive some pressure so he went on a robbing spree. The conflict was resolved after he finally came back home.


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. Man vs. Man This conflict was between Danny and Torrelli. During Danny’s little tryst, he supposedly sold the remaining house to Torrelli for 5 dollars while drunk. The resolution for that conflict was Danny’s friend tearing up the paper preventing Torrelli from owning the house.


B. Name at least one truth about life that you feel the writer wants the reader to consider. Support your opinion with at least three instances from the novel.


I believe John Steinbeck wanted us to realize how much in life we need friends to help pull us up from whatever we are doing, wrong or right. In the book all five friends came from the gutter up, literally. Many of the people that came to live in the house actually were living in a gutter before they moved into one of Danny’s houses. Another example is when Danny’s friend protected him from making one of the most horrible decisions in his life by selling his house. And finally when they threw the big party for Danny when he returned from his Mid-Life crisis.


C. Is the novel based upon the workings of the heart (meant to affect you emotionally) or of the mind (meant to make you think)? Explain why, using at least three examples from the novel.


This novel was based upon the working of the heart. I say that because no one in the book really used their heads to do anything. Most of the decisions made but the characters were rash and bold, many didn’t require a whole lot of thought. The novel was not written to make one think it was written to make one feel the love Danny had for his friends and vice versa. In the book when Danny decided to rent the house to Pilon, he knew Pilon did not have any money, but he knew Pilon had to have someplace to stay. When Jesus Maria made the pact that as long as all of them stayed in Danny’s house, Danny would never go hungry was another rash decision. When Danny challenged all of the people at his party to fight was brought on by the main decision maker in the book wine.


D. Chose one quote from one character in the novel and explain why you believe the quote is essential, interesting, or noteworthy.


I chose the quote, “To think, all those years I lay in that chicken house, and I did not know any pleasure. But now, oh, now I am very happy.” Pirate said that when he realized that he was one of the intermediate circle and was actually loved as a brother in the house. It was like he was realizing what real friends are and what they do for each other. It was a major moment for the development of Pirate.





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silly

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is i is is is is is is is is elephant people can do whatever they set their minds to don;t you agree abotut hat jack andjill wnet upa hill to fetch a pail of water jack fell down and broke his crown and jill came following after did you know no no no no no yes no yes money can talk abotu many different thing s did you knwo what i know said the little lamb tot he shepard boy he will bring us sivler and gold but i did not know that at all and know i feel sad about not knowing how i was suppossed to do what i need to do or what i can do in regards to how many people live in the orange tree down in san francisco or when i went out to see my mother and said to have a happy new year and bless mewith the things that that that that that that that that no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no nono no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no is is me me me me me i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i s did you knwo what i know said the little lamb tot he shepard boy he will bring us sivler and gold but i did not know that at all and know i feel sad about not knowing how i was suppossed to do what i need to do or what i can do in regards to how many people live in the orange tree down in san francisco or when i went out to see my mother and said to have a happy new year and bless mewith the things that that that that that that that that no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no nono no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no is is me me me me me i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i


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Australian News Media

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NEWS LITE - Light on Substance, Light on Value


Are Television News Bulletins a Shallow Reflection of the Real World?


Commercial interests dominate 1st century news agendas (ABA 001, Hartigan 001). To remain viable, news bulletins must attract audiences and advertisers; and they cannot do this, without delivering consumer-tailored news. The average commercial news bulletin offers between 14 and 15 minutes of news - that is without commercials, sport and weather. Within this mere quarter of an hour, the stations must squeeze in what they perceive to be the day’s most important and valuable events. This essay attempts to prove that television news bulletins are indeed a shallow and unrepresentative reflection of the real world. When comparing the content of evening news bulletins with that of daily newspapers, the substance gap between television and print becomes obvious. The commercial channel’s treatment of the war on Iraq is also indicative of the detrimental effects that commercial pressures have on the quality of news. Many television news stories are shallow and inconsequential and those that are not are treated with high-speed, dirty coverage (Seib 000 ).


Television news in Australia has experienced many dramatic changes in the last three decades, most of these resulting in the down grading in the quality of service and time devoted to serious and credible news (Turner 0005). There are a number of reasons to explain this phenomenon. Mayer (1 1) suggests the inherent conformity or pack tendencies in journalism result in the news becoming clich�d, because the most predictable events are treated as news, use of syndicated material is on the rise (due to budget restrictions) and mainstream news outlets all have the same idea of what news is.


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However, many more academics propose the ‘dumbing-down’ of the news most likely stems from the commercial interests that dictate not only media owners, but journalists. Franklin (17 5) suggests that many news stations are adopting a ‘tabloid agenda’ because of pressures to attract audiences and advertisers. In Australia, this process began in the mid-180s, when competition between stations produced a distinctive group of news programs, which, to a large extent, blurred the lines between news, information and entertainment (Turner 16). It has been argued (McNair 16 108) that since news programmes have adopted this new tabloid approach, there is no longer any room for lengthy political discourse and in-depth reporting. Altheide (174 15) believes that economic pressures have created ‘happy talk’ formats, involving newsreaders lightly conversing with weather reporters and each other to entertain viewers. This program philosophy also extends to the excessive use of video graphics and a general emphasis on the attractive packaging of news.


Commercialisation has also affected current affairs programs, which have since moved away from what was once their primary objective - providing background to and analysis of the day’s news stories. They have instead become devoted to the infotainment end of the news spectrum. This has meant news audiences have been limited to the superficial news provided by news bulletins, missing out on the deeper analysis of serious issues (Turner 000 4).


A study commissioned by the Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA) in 001 supports the notion that commercial interests have had an impact on what news Australian audiences receive. Many journalists involved in the study saw several factors other than the newsworthiness of an item, influencing them in their work. These included the pressure of audiences, ratings and circulation; commercial interests such as advertising and owners. The pressure of ratings and circulation reflected the commercial imperative of modern news production, to the extent that the eagerness of news producers in giving audiences what market research told them was wanted was criticised by some journalists as having an impact on news quality. The study found many journalists agreed that the value of news had been compromised by commercial interests (ABA 001).


The extent to which news stations will go to attract audiences and thus profits, can be seen in the following example. In early 000, Scottish Television launched its re-vamped news broadcast complete with former lingerie model Sarah Heaney as newsreader. The new-look Scotland Today also included new introductory titles, studio set and graphics but it was the hiring of the blonde Sarah Heaney that prompted the most controversy due to the fact that she had no formal journalistic training. It was obvious that the network was willing to compromise the quality of their broadcast in their quest for boosted ratings. However, in defense of television news audiences, the introduction of the former model resulted in a fall in viewing figures, suggesting people understood and were opposed to the networks tabloidisation methods (McVeigh 000 1). The ABA study reinforced this fact, when it found that sensational reporting in news and current affairs topped Australian audience’s list of media concerns, ahead of intrusive reporting and inaccuracy. It was also identified as being a significant problem in television news by journalists, who admitted that it occurred routinely and this concerned them (ABA 001).


Modern television news bulletins now offer what Seib (000 ) describes as ‘easily consumable bites’. They are intellectual snacks, not meals - satisfying briefly but leaving a hunger for more. The average news bulletin on the two leading Australian news channels - Nine and Seven, is, without commercials, 1 minutes long. Included in that, is between five and six minutes of sport and two minutes of weather. On most nights, this leaves 14 minutes and thirty seconds to cover the day’s news. A long story, presumably covering an important issue, is on average, one minute and 0 seconds long, with shorter stories generally only lasting 0 to 0 seconds. Brief stories generally consist of visually or aurally exciting issues such as the May 5, Channel story on ‘Killer Twisters in Kansas’ for which the station had obtained amateur video of the tornado and professional footage of the destruction it left behind. This story, which lasted seconds, was most likely included in the bulletin because of the spectacular recording of the natural disaster in the peak of its course. Alternatively, shorter stories can be issues that have to be included in the bulletin due to their importance (such as the May 8, Channel story on the state of Iraq after the end of the war). The visuals for this story were not as spectacular as previous footage of the war-torn country, there was no gunfire or bodies, which is perhaps why it only secured 45 seconds. In this case, the visuals (or lack of) did not warrant a longer story. Both of these types of stories are easy to digest for audiences but do not have enough substance to be truly filling; and unfortunately, there is no longer the substantial meal waiting at the end of news bulletins in the form of current affairs programs, leaving many audiences unsatisfied.


Roughly two weeks of news bulletins were watched between April 1 and 5 and May 1 and 6 on Channel and 7. When selecting the bulletins to tape, the assumption was made that any bulletin on any station at any time was representative of every bulletin on every station at every time. Although the stories on these news bulletins differed daily � the nature of the stories remained the same. Kerbel (000 56) suggests the ‘sameness’ of the stories is intentional and that audiences learn to expect this from news bulletins and thus become comfortable with them. He believes audiences are dependent on this continuity and producers perpetuate this by delivering news stories in the same format with the same personalities every day.


The following table compares Channel ’s coverage of May 5 to that of the Courier Mail. It makes obvious the fact that newspapers provide greater analysis of important issues, such as the controversy surrounding former Governor-General Peter Hollingworth. The Courier Mail dedicated three mid to large sized stories to the situation, along with a large-sized story on a similar sex abuse case. Channel however (most likely due to time restrictions) gave only 0144 to the case.


May 5 according to Channel and the Courier Mail


Channel story Time allotted Courier Mail story Size & placement of story


Labor Day celebrations 0156 Results of football � all codes Pg 1, LS


John Howard continues support of Peter Hollingworth 0144 Howard meets with Bush about free trade for Iraq Pg 1, LS


Howard’s visit to New York 0146 State Government plans to build $800 million paper mill Pg 1, SS


Howard at baseball game 008 More sex abuse claims that Hollingworth knew about Pg 1, MS


AMP slipping on the ASX 0146 SARS Suspects in Australia Pg 1, SS


General Financials 00 Gilbert Case � Sex Abuse Scandal Pg , LS


John Elliot found guilty for bad business dealings 00 Sex abuse victim calls for Hollingworth’s resignation Pg , LS


‘Killer Twisters’ in Kansas 000 Peter Costello says Hollingworth should resign Pg , MS


Failed space landing in Russia 017 Anti-smoking laws overhaul Pg , MS


Domestic SARS stories 001 Asthma rates soar in Australia Pg , SS


Friends of Natural Birth laundry hangout in King George Square 001 Green Bridge gets council OK Pg , MS


page number and BS � large story, MS � mid-sized story, SS � small story


It can be seen by comparing the coverage of Channel to the Courier Mail on May 5 in particular, that television news bulletins are shallow and simply do not provide the analysis that some issues require. Television audiences are not gaining real insight into the day’s events. On the contrary, they are being fooled into believing in a reality constructed by television stations.


Channel 7 and ’s reportage of the war on Iraq in April strengthens the argument that commercial pressures often affect the quality of news bulletins. In the rush to beat their competitors to headlines and breaking news, the stations on at least one occasion failed to check their facts. This hastiness also meant that issues relating to the war requiring deeper analysis, such as whether Australia should have been involved or not, were sketchily reported.


During the coverage of the war on Iraq, television viewers experienced what Seib (000) calls ‘the illusion of news’. We were bombarded by images of missiles lighting up Baghdad’s night sky and embedded American journalists wearing army camouflages. By providing a view of surface events, the cameras on the scene and live satellite feeds served to mask reality rather than shed light on what was happening. According to Seib, There are many problems associated with premature reporting, such as that which occurred earlier this year on Channel and 7, because often rumors, gossip, speculation, hearsay and unchecked claims are televised live, without verification and without sources. For example, when Private Jessica Lynch was originally ‘rescued’ by American soldiers, headlines on Channel 7 on April claimed that while the 1-year-old had been held as a prisoner of war by Iraqis she was viciously tortured and beaten. It was the lead story and earned one minute and 46 seconds of air-time. Later it was revealed however, that it was the story that was beaten up � by the US military. No time was taken to check the facts of the situation � the information, sketchy at best, was rushed to screens without a thought for the truth. In these situations, stations assume speed will compensate for superficiality (Seib 000).


The reduction in the quality of the news is such a concerning occurrence because of its affect on audiences. Television news is one of the most powerful perpetuators of the mass mediated account of what constitutes the real world (Turner 000 8). With this incredible power, the news media should be aiming to achieve the traditional goals of journalism - to provide, fairly and accurately, the information the public wants and needs to know. The speed and impact of television news should compliment, not dominate, that mission.


Unfortunately, it seems quite obvious that due to journalistic conformity and the pressure of commercial interests leading to sensationalism and consumer-tailored news, television news bulletins are as the heading of this essay suggests � a serving of news lite � light on substance and definitely light on value.





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biography of john wallis

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John Wallis was born in Ashford on November , 1616, and died in Oxford on October 8, 170. John Wallis went to school at Felstead school and first got into mathematics one day when he noticed a book of arithmetic of his brothers and was curious of the figures and numbers that were in the book. He was originally going to be a doctor and went to Emmanual College, in Cambridge. Although he was going to a college that was focused on doctrine, he was centered on math. He was offered a fellowship at Queens College. In 164 he was elected to the Savilian Chair of Geometry at Oxford. He lived here at this area until his death. Besides John Wallis’s math work, he also wrote on theology, logic and philosophy. In 1655 he published a book on conic sections, this work was intended to make method easier to mathematicians. The very best of the accomplishments was his Arithmetica Infinitorum, which he published in 1656. John Wallis is one of the most brilliant of all people involved in the world of math. He came up with some of the most outstanding theories and logical mathematical equations. He could probably be known as one of the most knowledgeable people to ever walk this earth. John Wallis was a baler who always took care of his family. He also never had any medical attention during his career of a mathmetician. He dad was thirty-four years old when he was born. John jacked off a lot while he was depressed as a young kid.


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What European nations competed for for control o the Southwest and Southeast borderlands? Explain how this competition shaped settlement in these regions.

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As the Spanish began to realize that their European rivals were beginning to set their


sights on the lands north of the Rio Grande, they too decided that it was imperative that


they jump on the wagon and create some substantial outposts. Athough the lionshare of


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their resources, and thus their economic success, lay in their establisments in Mexico


southward, they determined that New Mexico, California and Arizona were worthy of


exploration. The English (as merchants) and the French and Russians (as trappers) had


already set up shop, leaving the Spaniards to determine their niche in the economy,


agricultural development. As was par for the course, one of the housewarming gifts they


brought along to share with the natives was disease. This introduction proved


detremental to the cause of roping in native laborers to their cause, eventually leading to


a reduction by two-thirds in the population of the indians in both California and Arizona.


It eventually came down to the Spanards in Texas facing off to the French in Louisiana


leading to a standstill in this area of colonization. Another trend we saw from the


previous section was that of religious influence. Californias religious topograpy was


shaped in a limited manner by the effort of the Spanards to push Catholicism over the top


of their own beliefs. This shows a definitive trend of working with the native populations,


albeit for Spanish benefit, rather than wiping the slate clean for a complete takeover of


the regions. It is for this reason that these communities were much more permanent than


those of the English in the east.


On the topic of the Southeast borderlands, the geographic climate may have been


completeley different than that of the southwest, but the demographics began to prove


much the same. It is understood that the Spaniards would hold the upper hand in the


region, as they were the ones to originally lay claim to Florida in the 1560s. Natural


progression would also prove to spread north in the form of missionaries and traders.


The main competition in this region involved the Spaniards and the English, that between


the Spaniards and the French was more concentrated towards the west. This region was


riddled with unrest between the dueling English and Spanish. This region differed from


the southwest in that the Spaniards eventually lost their footing and were forced out of


Florida. Florida was then bombardedby a southern infux of Brits from their stations


further north. Perhaps a result of the vast geographic removal from Spanish settlements


south of the border, they eventually gave way to the English, opposite to the fate of the


Southwestern borderlands.





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IS EACH GENERATION OF CHILDREN SMARTER THAN THE GENERATION BEFORE IT?

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IS EACH GENERATION OF CHILDREN SMARTER THAN THE GENERATION BEFORE IT?


Over the past decades, evidence has arisen which supports the claim that each generation of children are smarter than the previous generation. This is based on what has been dubbed the “Flynn Effect”, named after James Flynn who in 184 officially reported a steady rise in the average scores on intelligence over the last half century in developed countries. Many explanations have been suggested to account for this rise but there is no generally accepted explanation for these results. Despite this evidence, studies on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) have shown a fall in average scores. This has led some scientists to question the validity of Flynn’s findings. However, this argument for an increase in intelligence is focused on standardised tests, it does not distinguish other forms of cognitive abilities, such as creative, practical and social intelligence.


Since the development of the first successful intelligence test by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in 105, which was used as a measure of predicting academic success, the measurement of intelligence has developed to incorporate a wider range of abilities. However, there is no formal definition of intelligence, and as a result, many have described intelligence as what intelligence tests measure (e.g. Boring, 1; Stelzl, Merz, Ehlers, & Remer, 15). Broadly speaking, intelligence is an abstract construct that encompasses many abilities like the ability to learn, to reason, to adapt to novel situations and the ability to apply abstract concepts (Vasta, Haith, & Miller,15).


Following Binet and Simon’s pioneering work, many adaptations and developments were made in intelligence testing. Today, the most well known intelligence tests are Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests. These IQ tests have been periodically adjusted for modern times and the revised versions of these tests are then standardized on new samples and scored with respect to those samples. In order to determine the differences in difficulty between the old and updated test, the same participant takes both versions of the test. Using this method, studies by Flynn (184, 187) have shown massive IQ gains, ranging from 5 to 5 points on standardised intelligence tests over a single generation.


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In other words, researchers have found that contemporary participants have scored higher norms on the old version of the test than those who had taken the same test decades ago. For example in one study by David Wechsler (cited, Neisser, 17), a group of participants scored an average of 10.8 on the new Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), but averaged 111. on the older WAIS. Implying that performance on this IQ test was increasing at a rate of 0. IQ points a year, between 15 and 178. Flynn used scores on the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler intelligence tests, but found the greatest increases in the “culture fair” intelligence test, Raven’s Progressive Matrices (Flynn, 1).


The most widely used tests of intelligence, Stanford-Binet and Wechsler have subtests that test school-related content like vocabulary, arithmetic and general information. This type of knowledge is known as “crystallised” intelligence because it has to be learned or acquired through experience. With improvements over time in schooling and other environmental changes that could improve intelligence of this form, the natural assumption would be that scores on these tests would increase the most. On the other hand, test like Raven’s Progressive Matrices test (RPM), which is culture-reduced, would show the least gains because it is supposedly measuring the purest measure of g or general intelligence. It is “pure” in the sense that it is measuring fluid intelligence, a form of intelligence that is supposedly inherent and cannot be learnt. However, these deductions have been contradicted by the data collected in numerous studies (e.g. Flynn, 187; Koppen-Thulesius, & Teichmann, 17).


The problem with g is that by definition the test that best measures it, is the test that has the highest correlations with all the other intelligence tests. What g really measures is therefore unknown, we only know how to measure it (Neisser, 17). RPM is the accepted best measure of g and consists mainly of tests involving visual-spatial reasoning, like identifying missing parts of a pattern. However, there is dispute on whether RPM is as culturally reduced as it claims to be (e.g. Cahan & Cohen, 18; Carpenter, Just, & Shell, 10; Stelz, Merz, Ehlers, & Remer, 15). Cahan and Cohen (18) showed that schooling has a considerable effect on all intelligence test scores, including those measuring fluid intelligence.


Studies have shown that exposure and practice on visual abilities, on which Raven is based, actually improves performance on certain parts of IQ tests. For example, Patricia Greenfield (cited, Neisser, 17; Flynn, 1) argued that exposure to a video game lead to better performances on subtests of intelligence tests, testing the same ability that the children were exposed to during the game. Access to computers a decade ago was not as prevalent in society as they are today and as a result, children may be performing better as a result.


What seems to be happening is that although the technological environment is changing, the tests measuring this performance is static. Flynn (1) argues that a subtest on the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), called Similarities is also measuring g, and shows large gains, but it’s not a test on visual problem solving, it is a verbal test and these scores have been increasing as well. Also the gains on Raven’s matrices were observed before the invention of the television (Flynn, 1), so the argument for technological improvements including more media, as reasons for the increases is weak.


Flynn also found increases of scores on the Wechsler scale, but on some of the scores analysed, inconsistencies with respect to rising IQ scores have been found (e.g. Spitz, 18). This is not the only discrepancy with the evidence of a rise in intelligence. Comparing Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores over time has shown that they have actually declined, which does not follow from rising IQ scores. In 141, the standardised SAT score was 500, but in the 10s, comparative test scores on verbal SAT is 44, and a mathematics score of 478, showing a decline in average performance. If IQ scores are supposed to be measuring success at school, and people now have higher IQs, it does not make sense that over the last two decades the SAT scores would be falling. Flynn has suggested that Raven’s test does not measure intelligence but a “correlate with a weak causal link to intelligence” (Flynn, 187, p.187), and he even suggested that this was the case for all IQ tests.


Therefore the amount of schooling does not seem to explain the rise in IQ scores because SAT scores are falling, and the SAT is supposed to measure learned content. However, studies besides studies by Flynn on the pattern of intelligence scores have lead to a general acceptance that scores on standardised tests are on the rise, although there have been some which have questioned the method used to analyse data (e.g. Brand, Freshwater, & Dockrell, 18). The explanations given to justify the Flynn effect have not been definitive, rather intelligence is believed to be influenced by a wide range of these explanations.


One of the justifications given in support of rising intelligence scores is a biological one that argues that with improvements in nutrition, adults become physically developed, as seen in increases in the average height of human adults. With this developmental growth, the neural structures in the brain also become more complex, accounting for an increase in intelligence (Lynn, 10). However, it is difficult to show that there is a direct effect between diet and intelligence without taking into account other types of deprivation that usually co-occurs with malnutrition.


Neisser (17) argues that the fact that we have not changed genetically and the rise in scores seems so large, that genetic explanations are implausible. So many of the explanations are attributing the increases in IQ scores to changes within the environment, including cultural and social changes. If IQ varies as a result of environment, comparing different cultures seems futile. But this explanation that environmental changes have caused improved IQ scores seems to agree with Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Piaget viewed human intelligence as an adaptive phenomenon, and the way in which they adapt is caused by environmental changes (Vasta et al, 15).


Not all forms of intelligence are measurable, like wisdom, creativity, practicality, and social competence. However, one kind of intelligence that can be measured is IQ, which measures some form of cognitive ability that is predictive of performance in school. It is scores on these standardised tests that are steadily increasing and have led people to suggest that over generations, children are getting smarter. However, it is easy to simplify intelligence to a statistic like an IQ quotient or SAT score based on “intelligence” tests for the benefit categorising and assessing a mass of people. But two people with identical IQ scores have different minds, not identical thoughts, and saying that a lower IQ means less “intelligent” than someone with a high IQ will be overlooking characteristics that could signify “real” intelligence.


References


Cahan, S., & Cohen, N. (18). Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development. Child Development, 60, 1-14.


Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., & Shell, P. (10). What one intelligence test measures a theoretical account of the processing in the Raven progressive matrices test. Psychological Review, 7, 404-41.


Flynn, J.R. (10). Massive IQ gains on the Scottish WISC Evidence against Brands et al. Hypothesis. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 11, 41-51.


Flynn, J.R. (1). Searching for justice The discovery of IQ gains over time. American Psychologist, 54, 5-0.


Koppen-Thulesius, L.K, & Teichmann, H. (17). Accelerative trends in intellectual development. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 84-4.


Lynn, R. (10). The role of nutrition in secular increases in intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 7-85.


Neisser, U. (17). Rising scores on intelligence tests. American Scientist,


Spitz, H. (18). Variations in Wechsler interscale IQ disparities at different levels of IQ. Intelligence, 1, 157-167.


Stelzl, I., Merz F., Ehlers, T., & Remer, H. (15). The effect of schooling on the development of fluid and crystallized intelligence a quasi-experimental study. Intelligence, 1, 7-6.


Zigler, E., Abelson, W.D., Trickett, P.K., & Seitz, V. (18). Is an interventioin program necessary in order to improve economically disadvantaged children’s IQ scores? Child Development, 5, 40-48.


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Globalisation

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GLOBALIZATION is a term used to describe many effects that occur due to a rapidly changing world and the development of multi-national markets and communication, media technologies and other systems of production and consumption. As a result of this, a new culture has emerged, the GLOBAL culture. Values taken from this culture are not those of a moralistic nature, but more of a commercial Production skills, efficiency and progress are the values upheld by this culture. GLOBALIZATION looks out for the GLOBAL community, and often the individual is disregarded and forgotten as a result of this. It affects individual’s lives and LOCAL communities economically and culturally, and its effects can be seen from two different viewpoints Positively- Where focus is on the features of a changing world in which access benefits LOCAL communities through prosperity, health, freedom and communication. OR Negatively Where it is seen as a form of domination of 1st world countries over rd world countries or LOCAL communities and where individual distinctions of culture and society are erased by the homogenizing of this GLOBAL culture.


The LOCAL is a distinct community sharing certain values and beliefs often passed on from generation to generation so tradition is kept alive.


Both the ideas of the GLOBAL and the LOCAL are represented in all three set texts The Castle, The Shipping news and Seamus Heaney’s poetry, in particular ‘Funeral Rites’, ‘Digging’ and Tollund Man’. They are also represented in the novel text ‘Fight Club’ by Chuck Palahniuk, and the short story texts ‘Where the stars are lit by neon’, ‘Ice Breaker’ and ‘”Are we there yet Dad”’ from ‘Places in the Heart’ compiled by Susan Kurosawa.


Each of these texts deals with the notion of GLOBALIZATION and the retreat from it into the LOCAL.


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The movie ‘The Castle’ conveys a strong notion of retreat from the global, and on the whole places the values of the LOCAL in higher esteem than those of the GLOBAL. It is not however, completely biased as benefits of the GLOBAL are also dealt with and the LOCAL community is often subtlely and gently ridiculed and shown to be naive as a result of isolation.


The Kerrigan family co-exists with the influences of GLOBALIZATION quite harmoniously in the beginning of this movie. The GLOBAL and LOCAL are in a balanced state, neither imposing on the other. The Kerrigans are able to enjoy the benefits of GLOBALIZATION ease of communication, transport and advanced technology, whilst still retaining the values and benefits of the LOCAL Love for family and community, support from family and community, value of the individual and appreciation for the simple things in life.


It is not until the GLOBAL begins to impose on the LOCAL and threaten its very existence that a problem arises. The Kerrigans have to fight to retain their part of the world. To save the LOCAL from being consumed by the GLOBAL. Here the GLOBAL is represented by a multi-national airline company ‘Airlink’ run by the ‘Barlow Group’, a group of extremely wealthy businessmen. This airline threatens to demolish the Kerrigan’s house, and in doing so their home, their memories and their community. The Kerrigan’s value their home, and everything about it from the ‘fake chimney’ to the doghouse built on lead filled soil. They fight for this, but cannot do so without outside help which appears in the form of Laurie, a retired ‘QC lawyer’. This is another example of where the product of GLOBALIZATION has worked with the LOCAL to produce a beneficial outcome. Laurie, while being a product of the GLOBAL, still values the individual and therefore, Laurie himself is a balance of GLOBAL and LOCAL. The overall tone of this movie seems to imply a triumph of the LOCAL over the GLOBAL, but effectively, the result is to restore the balance between the two. The movie is not so much about escape, but conservation.


Annie Proux’s ‘The Shipping News’ also deals with these issues, but takes a different viewpoint. She still portrays a need for balance between the GLOBAL and the LOCAL, but these two entities are presented in a much more realistic and complex manner. Rather than presenting the fairy tale and stereotypical style LOCAL as is seen in ‘The Castle’ where all the values and beliefs of the LOCAL are good, healthy and promote a happy lifestyle, Proux’s idea of the LOCAL presents us with the reality of living in an isolated community complete with its own faults, quirks and history that has been preserved and past down from generation to generation. The occupants of Newfoundland are forced to face their past, as they have nowhere to run from it as is easily achieved in the GLOBAL village. Quoyle has spent his entire life running from his past and problems. Lost in a fast changing world that has no time for self-discovery and no regard for the individual except as a commodity, Quoyle is abused, ignored and used by those around him, in particular, Quoyles wife Petal Bear. Her name alone sums her up beautiful, petit and a ruthless animal. She is a powerful symbol of the GLOBAL world. Beautiful, sexy and desirable on the surface, but rotten underneath. She treats Quoyle with contempt and finds his ‘damp loaf of a body’ disgusting. She seems horrifying to us as she seems to have no morals at all. She even sells her own children to sexual slavery. Her lack of morals cause her to seem inhuman. Quoyle however is completely infatuated with Petal and is distraught when she is killed in an horrific car accident. His aunt Agnis advises that he return to his roots by going back to Newfoundland.


“You’ve got a chance to start out all over again. A new place, new people, new sights. A clean slate. See, you can be anything you want with a fresh start.” Proux’s characters are complex, and therefore carry their own problems and dark secrets as well as their fond memories and good values. Issues of sexual assault and domestic violence were rife in the small isolated community of Newoundland, and the scars these subtle atrocities inflicted remain on the people. It is these problems which are so easily buried in the GLOBAL world, but must be faced when brought into the close, confronting and intimate LOCAL life.


Quoyle tries to distance himself from his past, the truth and absolutions. He tries not to face situations and protect those he loves from facing them too, in fear of causing them pain. He explains death as a kind of sleep to his children, taking away the harsh reality of it. Also, he has a habit of headlining his situation.


‘Stupid man does wrong thing again.’


Which is possibly Quoyle’s way of detaching himself from the situation. Proux explains this by saying,


“For many people - for me certainly - the life of the mind, the realm of the imagination, is more brilliant and compelling than the world we live in. If you have nothing and no place in the world, the imagination is an engine of incredible power, both to lift you out of where you are and to impel you into another reality.”


In Newfoundland, Quoyle has the opportunity and time to find himself, his positive qualities and his place in the world. The GLOBAL world could not afford Quoyle this time.


In ‘The Shipping News’, the GLOBAL world ultimately fails due to lack of understanding. It tries to assist the small town of Newfoundland by setting up factories and industries there to provide jobs and income, but lack of understanding of the environment, the people and the needs of this place caused these attempts to fail. A particular blow was the introduction of commercial fishing in the area that hijacked the people’s jobs, lifestyle and income.


In Seamus Heaney’s poems, an entirely different viewpoint of GLOBAL and LOCAL is given. The LOCAL is seen more as a refuge, a place of reflection and inspiration. A muse for life. It is truly a retreat from the harsh world of the global. A place to find your own identity through the land, your countries history and your family history. A strong sense of place and belonging is set up in his poetry, which is strongly linked to his constant reference to the earth and land.


In ‘Funeral Rites’ Heaney makes a comment about the comfort taken in retreating to the rituals and regularities of the LOCAL,


‘Now as news comes in of each neighbourly murder we pine for ceremony, customary rhythms.’


Time is taken to savour events and address them head on, then lay them to rest. Ritual is a way of dealing with the intangible, resorting to certainty to understand and comprehend.


‘their dough-white hands shackled in rosary beads.’


In ‘Digging’, the retreat Heaney takes is into his past. Finding meaning, purpose and inspiration in his forefathers and their work. The main focus here is the connection to the land. All his forefather’s work involved the land, their lives revolved around it, it was their livelihood. Heaney, although noting that he cannot literally follow them in their profession by carrying on their work physically, but he can retain the essence of it through his writing.


‘I’ve no spade to follow men like them…Between my finger and thumb the squat pen rests. I’ll dig with it.’ He’ll carry on the exploration and discovery that is connected with digging, and use it as inspiration. He’ll use the monetary gains from it to make his way in the world just as successfully as they did. He must however, go back to his roots before he can take on the GLOBAL aspect of the world.


‘The Tollund Man’, although based around a subject, which is not LOCAL to Heaney, also carries with it a sense of retreat from the GLOBAL. However, this retreat is more into his imagination rather than his past.


The most unusual thing about the Tollund Man would be that Heaney does not create a sense of understanding and empathy until the last three stanzas. These show Heaney feels the Tollund man’s “sadness’, and a distinct link with retreat and isolation.


‘Out there in the Jutland In the old man-killing parishes I will feel lost, Unhappy and at home.’


Heaney finishes the poem with a paradox (lost and at home), stating that he empathises with the Tollund man by relating to him through his homeland.


Another important note on retreat in ‘The Tollund Man’ is the first line,


‘Someday I will go to Aarhus.’


In this line Heaney reveals a detached ‘what if?’, a dreamy imagination, which creates a sense of escaping from the GLOBAL into his imagination and poetry.


‘Fight Club’ is distinctly anti-GLOBAL, and conveys the idea of salvation in total retreat. To give up everything to gain anything. ‘First you have to hit rock bottom’. When every purpose in your life becomes to better yourself in the eyes of the GLOBAL world, you have to give everything up from it and start again. When culture, doesn’t matter which one, becomes a fascinating commodity, ‘hand-blown green glass dishes with the tiny bubbles and imperfections, little bits of sand, proof they were crafted by the honest, simple, hard-working indigenous aboriginal peoples of wherever’.


‘you’re trapped in your lovely nest, and the things you used to own, now they own you.’


Tyler Durden, one of the main characters who is actually a projection of the narrators subconscious mind, basically sets up an army with which to bring down major corporations and return everyone back to starting point. The idea is to retreat to the basics to remove all the unnecessary layers forced upon you by the GLOBAL world which cause you to be trapped.


‘Places in the heart’ is a compilation which doesn’t demonise the GLOBAL so much, but celebrates the LOCAL and the refuge it supplies when the GLOBAL is too overwhelming. It is about memories, places and events that certain authors retreat into for inspiration and relaxation. In ‘Where the stars are lit by neon’ Graeme Blundell writes about Kings Cross, a place largely influenced by the GLOBAL world, but as a result of this, allows a complete retreat into the imagination due to the anonymity of the city. ‘you enter a world where you can reinvent yourself in the casual act of hanging around. In such a big place you can find something in everybody that you can relate to. A piece of the LOCAL everywhere that you can retreat into. ‘I loved the idea of layer upon layer of humanity living and loving and suffering, exulting or dying in…the great ant-heap of its brick and concrete.’


In ‘Ice breaker’, Tim Bowden talks of his love for the Antarctica. Hardly LOCAL it seems at first, but his entire childhood in Tasmania was filled with his fascination with the place, combined with his own father’s enthusiasm for it. Going there ‘was like coming home and fulfilling all my dreams.’ ‘You are so isolated there and confronted with yourself alone for company that the troubles of the outside world can’t touch you.’


Paul Dyer also tells of how he retreats from the GLOBAL world into memories of his childhood which are brought back by the old beach-house his family used to own and holiday in. An escape from his busy life as a musician, he sometimes visits the house to stay and reflect on carefree days. ‘t seems like the rest of Sydney is so far away when you’re there, like it belongs to another world in another time that you don’t have to deal with. An escape from responsibility and reality.’


All these texts that I have discussed deal with the concept of GLOBALISATION and the retreat from the global, although from different perspectives. Whether positive or negative they convey their message strongly and with complexity but with clarity.








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The fight for irish independence

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1.1.0 Revolutionary Nationalists (period of time 170-11)


The Revolutionary Nationalists were the first people to begin thefight for independence. They were influenced by the revolutions in America and France at the end of the 18th century. There ordinary people had overthrown their kings and set up governments which gave equal rights to everyone.


Revolutionary Nationalists thought that Ireland also needed a new system. This new system the revolutionary nationalists demanded was supposed to be


Independent (free from the British Empire)


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Democratic (a Government elected by the people)


Republican (without a king)


They tried to reach this sytem by applying violence.


Between 178 and 1867 the Revolutionary Nationalists tried three times to overthrow the British rule. They tried to become independent from Great Britain.


Actually none of these tries succeded.


In the cause of the first rebellion, in 178, the British dicided to abolish the Irish Parliament. From that point on, the Irish MPs (Members of Parliament) had to sit in Westminster. This meant a loss of control for the Irish people because all decisions concerning Ireland were now made in England.


IRB (Irish Republican Brotherhood)


Despite these defeats the hopes of the Revolutionary Nationalists did not die.


In the year 1850 a group was set up in America called IRB meaning Irish Republican Brotherhood. Its members were people who emigrated during the Great Famine.


From the year 170 on, the Revolutionary Nationlists applied a different tactic because in 1867 they realised there was a little support for violent uprisings within society and therefore they began to support poor farmers in their fight against harsh landlords.


Thus, by the early 100s support for the IRB slowly increased.


United Irishmen


The United Irishmen were another revolutionary group demanding an independent democratic Republic with full equality for the Catholic majority of the population.


The important point one has to know about the United Irishmen is, that both Catholics and Protestants were members of the association.


1.1.1 The rise of Sinn Fein


105 the IRB were joined by a new group called Sinn F�in (meaning we, ourselves alone) founded by Arthur Griffith. He wanted Ireland to become independent just like the IRB but unlike the IRB he wanted to achieve this without violence. Sinn Fein tried to set up an Parliament in Ireland.


Both Sinn Fein and the IRB wanted to win but in the early 100s their chances of success looked slim. Just like the early Revolutionary Nationalists because they had only a little support from the majority of the Irish people and so the British government was not forced to handover the control of Ireland.


1..0 Parliamentary Nationalists (180-114)


The Parliamentary Nationalists began their fight for free Ireland from the British rule in 1800 right after the abolition of the Irish Parliament.


The most important difference between the Parliamentary Nationalists and the Revolionary Nationalists. is the fact that the Parliamentary Nationalists did not demand complete independence from Britain. They demanded an own Parliament and yet accepted to stay within the British Union.


While the Revolionary Nationalist had to face defeat after defeat, the Parliamentary Nationalist made steady progress during the 1th century.


1..1 Home Rule


It took a long time to build up an Irish Nationalist Party. And yet in 1885 there were 85 Nationalist MPs in Westminster led by a man called Charles Parnell.


From this point on, they were big enough to be recognized by the two other parties in Westminster, the Liberals and the Conservatives.


Parnell made full use of the new found power of the Irish Nationalist Party.


In 1886 the leaders of the Liberal Party agreed to help Parnell and the Nationalists in their attempt to set up an Irish Parliament


They brought a so-called Home Rule for Ireland bill before the house of Commons. Although this was defeated twice, because too many British MPs distrusted the Revolutionary Nationalist Party, a new leader of the Nationalist succeeded with the Home Rule bill before the house of Commons in 11. Therefore the Irish were allowed to build up an own Parliament in Dublin, Ireland.


1..0 The rise of Unionist opposition (170-114)


After the first rebellion in the 170s protestant people in Ireland felt threatent by the idea that they might lose power if the Nationalists got their way. The Protestant people began to regard every Nationalist ̫ no matter wheter Revolionary or Parliamentary ̫ as their enemies. There were only the English who shared the same interests and supported the Protestants.


Some Protestants joined a semi-secret organisation called Orange Order (alluding to the Battle of Boyne when William of Orange defeated the Catholics).


Most Protestant realized that the Nationalists are a danger to them at first after the British Parliament had passed the Home Rule for Ireland bill. Therefore they decided to build up an own poltical party called The Ulster Unionist Party in order to destroy all ideas of an independent Ireland.


Later on, in the year 11 the Ulster Protestants organized themselves to fight. Within a year they had 100,000 men and ͘ 1 million which they used to buy weapons from Germany. So the Ulster Unionist Party was well prepared for a civil war.


In 114 there were serios problems in Ireland


The Parliamentary Nationalists had been promised Home Rule but the Unionist were determinded to stop Ulster being ruled by an Irish parliament.


Both sides (Catholics and Protestants) had their support in society


Both sides had their armed private armies. Protestant Ulster Volunteers; Catholics Irish Volunteers


WW I. prevented a civil war in Ireland. Most of the people accepted the delay and 00,000 Irish men joined the British army in order to fight in WWI under the British Crown.


.0.1 The Easter rising (116)


The Revolutionary Nationalists still rejected the parliamentary policy of peaceful persuasion.


Finally in 116 when the war was going badly for Britain a small group of armed Revolutionary Nationalist managed to take over the General Post Office and proclaimed Ireland an independent Republic.


Within a few days the British army put the rebellions into prison and some of them were executed.


It seemed like the violent way had been wrong and the peaceful way right.


.1.0 The triumph of Sinn F�in (118)


In the 118 General Election the Irish people had to decide about the future of Ireland.


They had three possibilities


Own parliament (Home rule) but remaining a part of the British Empire


- Nationalist Party


British rule for Ireland


- Ulster Unionists


Complete independence from the Empire


- Sinn Fein & Revolutionary Nationalists


Suprisingly the majority of the Irish people voted for Sinn F�in and the Revolutionary Nationlists.


Afterwards they lost no time in putting their campaign promises into action.


The new Sinn Fein MPs refused to go to London, instead they declared Ireland an independent republic and build up their own parliament in Dublin. This Parliament is called The Dail (still today).


Shortly after that the Irish volunteers were reorganised and renamed


into The Irish Republican Army (IRA).


..0 The War of Irish Independence (11-11)


The British had a part of its army in Ireland and soon sent in more to put down this, according to the British perspective, self-proclaimed government.


The Protestants in Ulster did not support the idea of an independent Ireland and so they supported the British.


For the next two years there was a bitter guerilla war between the British army and the IRA.


Both sides tried to gain control of a united Ireland.


.0.0 Ireland devided (11)


In the end the British government decided together with some leading representatives of Sinn F�in and the IRA that the only solution was to divide Ireland into two parts.


The North


in 10 Ulster was given their own government known as Stormont.


The South


Most Irish Nationalists were against the idea of a divided Ireland.


In 11 leading figures of the IRA and Sinn F�in signed together with the British government a treaty which said that the south becomes indepedent and known as the Irish Free State but remains part if the British Empire.


Both British and Sinn F�in leaders saw the partition as a temporary solution, but North- and South Ireland drifted further apart and so both parts are divided until today.


.1.0 The South ̫ building a sperate state


Due to the partition of Ireland the IRA split up into two parts


The one group accepted the partition.


The other group recejted it.


These two parts fought a brutal civil war from 1-1. The group who accepted the partition as a part-time solutino won, and so this part of the IRA ruled the south for 10 years.


In the 1 Irish Election the supporters were defeated by Fianna Fail and their leader Eamon de Valera.


De Valeas Free State


A united Ireland


He made a new constitution which demanded a united Ireland.


A catholic Ireland


The Catholic Church was allowed to take influence on certain social structures (education, divorcement policy and so on..)


A Gaelic Ireland


He wanted persuade people to speak Gaelic. He did not succeed and so large parts of the population did not switch over from English to Gaelic.


A free Ireland


De Valera tried to cut all econmic and poltical ties with Britain.


A peaceful Ireland


De Valeara fought against the IRA even some members of his party were former members of it.


..0 Orangemen rule the North


The partition of Ireland brought quiet a few problems to the north. Even if the majority of the North were Protestant Unionists a small minority consisted out of Catholic Nationalists.


The parliament for the north of Ireland, Stormont, was supposed look after both sides interests , but due to the majority of the Protestants they controlled Stormont.


Before 16 every member of Stormont was Protestant and a member of the Orange Order.


This led to serveral problems for the Catholic people, like the housing policy or the manipulating of electoral districts (gerrymandering).


Therefore many Catholic people moved from the North of Ireland to the Irish Free State (the south)


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Byzantine Empire and Muslims

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Events in history can often change the course of political, economic and social development for a society. For two certain societies, these changes affected the course of its vast empire. These significant events for an established society such as problems produced by their successes and the lessons to be learned from their failures is something that historians try to study. As a modern society, we can find parallels between ancient and modern times and learn from their failures.


The most apparent of these examples can be found in the Roman Empire, which covered about half of Europe, much of the Middle East, and the north coast of Africa. The empire then began to crumble, partly because it was too big for Rome to govern. In A.D. 476, Germanic tribes overthrew the last Roman Empire. The millions of people who lived in the Roman Empire bound them together under a common system of law and government. Multiple scholars have contended that the primary reason for Rome’s decline and eventual fall was the receding of the great Empire’s economic might, and the social repercussions that accompanied it on the surface. Two reasons for the lack of funds are wholesale hoarding of bullion by Roman citizens, and the widespread looting of the Roman treasury by the “barbarians”. These two factors coupled with the massive trade deficit with Eastern Regions of the Empire served to stifle the growth of wealth in the west. This would have large ramifications that permeate the very essence of Roman society. The climate also changed, there were hot droughts and cold rainy seasons. This made the crops decrease and would force the Romans to undergo widespread irrigation projects on land which had formerly been self � sufficient. The huge quantities of water needed for this project had to be contained in large reservoirs, and the standing water became stagnant. This water began to breed mosquitoes which carried malaria. The malaria began to weaken and kill a large percentage of the population.


Political problems also contributed to Rome’s decline. First, as the government became more oppressive and authoritarian, it lost the support of the people. Growing numbers of corrupt officials undermined loyalty, too. Perhaps most important, dividing the empire at a time when it was under attack may have weakened it beyond repair. It also affected it socially, because they had a decline in values such as patriotism, discipline, and devotion on duty on which the empire was built on. The upperclass, which had once provided leaders, devoted itself to luxury and self � interest. In essence, the Roman Empire crumbled due to insufficient economic power, which came about for a variety of reasons. It lacked the resources necessary to keep such a vast empire intact. The empire reached such a point that it could no longer support itself, becoming top heavy, and crashed down like a tower that had grown too high for its own foundation.


Another example of the economic, political, and social development is the expansion of Islam. Muhammad, a man who was born in Mecca shared his views and people were moved with his words. When Muhammad died, his followers carried his message of Islam to people on three continents and set off one of the most powerful forces in history. The followers did not make people convert by their choice. They seized the people and forced them to follow Islam. They conquered great chunks of the Byzantine Empire, including Syria and Palestine. They then moved to Spain to expand the Muslim zone much farther into Asia and Africa. This also had long term affects on in linking these country in Musslim trade.


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They had such great success because the Byzantine and Persian empires were weak. The Muslims also imposed a special tax on non- Muslims, but allowed Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians to practice their own faith and follow their own laws. As Muslim civilization developed, many Jews and Christians played key roles as officials, doctors and translators. In time, many non- Muslims converted to Islam. Many nomadic people of North Africa and Central Asia chose Islam immediately. Its message was simple and direct and they saw its triumph as a sign of God’s favor. Moreover, Islam had no religious hierarchy or class of priests. In principle, it emphasized the equality of all believers, regardless of race, gender, class, or wealth. In later centuries, Turkish and Mongol converts helped spread Islam far across Asia. In a centuries time, 1/ of the world converted to Islam. The trade routes connecting the eastern and western branches of Christendom were weakened as the Muslims seized control of the sea.


The Muslim Empire united people from diverse cultures. In time, their civilization absorbed and blended many traditions. People in their society could move up, especially through religious, scholarly, or military achievements. As with Rome, slavery was common in cities of the Muslim world, but if slaves converted to Islam they did not automatically become free but their children did. Islamic law later encouraged the freeing of slaves. Economically, merchants were honored in the Muslim world because Muhammad himself was a merchant. Camel caravans crossed the Sahara dessert into West Africa with goods. Muslim traders bought and exchanged goods, and created great fortunes. Arab merchants brought Arabic numerals from India to the Western world. Thus helping a common language and religion to globally grow.


Wide reaching trade and a prosperous economy for the Muslims led them to find news ways of doing business. Partnerships were set up and they brought and sold on credit. Banks were also formed to change currency. The Muslims invented what is now today’s bank checks.


Agriculture also flourished. Muslim farmers cultivated sugar cane, cotton, dyes, dates, olives and other crops, which were bough and sold in world markets. Irrigation projects had to be formed for the dry dessert land. Islam’s agriculture also influenced the culture. Muslim architects used domes and arches from Byzantine buildings and put them to new uses. Domed mosques dominated Muslim cities. Courtyards outside these religious shines had fountains which provided a place for the faithful to participate in a ceremonial washing before prayer. Hospitals were also built as medical advances were made. Islamic governments set up hospitals with a department similar to today’s emergency rooms.


Events in history can often change the course of political, economic and social development for a society. For these two societies, significant events changed the course of their whole empire. As a modern society, we can find parallels between ancient and modern times and learn from their failures.





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i dont have one

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Could you use a Free Grant of $10,000 to $156,000 but, not exceeding $5,000,000? If so, it is very important that you read every word of this Free Grant Announcement. New initiatives, funded by the U.S.Government, and private foundations, allows only certain people that meet unusual requirements a Free Grant. In the past, only the select few were privy to these funds. But this has all changed. Free Grants are being paid in amounts up to, but not exceeding, $5,000,000 U.S.dollars. The relatively new concept of giving away money is called the American Free Grant Giveaway . Now what really makes these special initiatives different is who is eligible for these special Free Grants. Common everyday people are getting these funds on a daily basis. It seems hard to believe, but its the absolute truth.





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Seperate, but close

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Even people with contrasting personalities can end up the best of friends. In A Separate Peace a novel


about the war by John Knowles, two teenage boys realize this. Gene and Finny are two completely different people, but despite their


differences, they have a strong friendship. They are best friends as well as roommates that attend Devon school in New Hampshire


during WWII. Even though Gene and Finny are best friends, they contrast in confidence, competitiveness, academics, and athletics.


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Gene and Finny differ in confidence in many ways. Finny is very confident in that he is not afraid to just be himself. He plays


sports and happens to be very good at them. He wears a pink sweater and doesn’t care what anyone thinks of him. When he can’t play


sports, He gets a little upset, but still keeps a good attitude. He is very outgoing and can be himself. Gene on the other hand, has very


low self esteem and seems to be a follower of Finny. He is always trying to be like him and wears his clothes. The day after the


accident at the tree, as Gene looks in the mirror with Finny’s pink sweater on , he says “I felt like some nobleman, some Spanish


grandee.” (pg.6) Even though he is very smart and at the top of his class, it’s not enough, because Finny gets more attention and this


makes Gene jealous. Even though he lacks confidence he does show bravery when he stands up to Brinker and the boys in the butt


room. The boys are all teasing Gene about the accident at the tree and he makes it all into a big joke by saying “first I stole all his


money. Then I found that he cheated on his entrance tests to Devon and I blackmailed his parents about that, then I made love to his


sister in Mr. Ludsbury’s study, then I..”(pg.0)


Another quality that Gene and Finny differ in is academics and athletics. Gene is very smart and top of his class. He cares about his


grades, and wants to be valedictorian. When he fails his trigonometry test because of not studying, he gets very upset and says “I


flunked it; I knew I was going to as soon as I looked at the test problems.” (pg.50) He spends a lot of time studying and always tries to


put school work first. He is also good at sports but isn’t as interested in them as much as he is in his grades, which he spends most of


his time on. Finny is practically the opposite in that he doesn’t care about grades and isn’t the brightest student. He focuses more on


having fun and playing sports. He enjoys hanging with the guys and jumping from the tree. He is very


athletic and talented. He invents blitz ball and is very creative. All the boys know he is the best at sports


and they usually listen to his ideas. Finny and Gene are both interested in one thing and they are very good


at what they like to do.


Gene is very competitive and tries to be like Finny, while Finny just does what he can and isn’t


concerned with whose better or more athletic. Since Gene is jealous of Finny, one day at the tree, as they


were about to jump off together, Gene pushes Finny off. This shows that Gene is very competitive,


because he wanted to look better for once. Gene explains “And I thought we were competitors! It was so


ludicrous I wanted to cry.”(pg.66) One day when Finny breaks the school swim record and tells Gene not


to tell anyone, Gene gets angry. He thinks that Finny is trying to impress him. He says “Was he trying to


impress me or something? Not tell anybody? When he had broken the school record with out a day of


practice?” (pg.44) Finny really just wants the boy who earned the record to keep it but Gene takes it the


wrong way. While Gene is too concerned with who is better, Finny is oblivious to this and thinks both he


and Gene are great people of equal talents. Gene seems too uptight and is always comparing himself to


Finny.


Even though Gene and Finny are both very different and their personalities differ in confidence,


competitiveness, and athletics and sports, they have developed a close friendship. As Gene grows up


throughout the novel he learns a lot about friendship. This novel, by John Knowles, shows that even the


two most different people can develop the strongest friendship. It can be tough, but if you stick together


and stay strong, it will all turn out okay in the end.





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