arts marketing

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Examine the problems encountered by arts marketers and suggest was in which organisations might rise to meet particular challenges.

Knowing the customers, what they want, then they will come.

Module based material

Summary/evaluation of any problem/issue

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Examples of the application of the theoretical material

When I visited the National Museum in London for the first time, I was surprised at the huge array of art works which it has, and the multi-cultural atmosphere. The problem was simple, I didn¡¦t know where to start, and some of them are so new that I couldn¡¦t understand well at all. When I have a discussion with one of my friends, we found a guide of foreign tourists, who explains the history of the work, and why it is still valuable today. It was really helpful, and added to our enjoyment of the museum. Sometimes art work on its own can be enjoyed by an individual, however sometimes we need an expert opinion giving background to the piece.

�Ü What is an arts organisation?

The character of arts field; it is not producing products, it is not like a commercial enterprise, it keeps heritages for the future, it give a chance to learn, where we are from, where we are, will show what we¡¦ve done to our descendents. Basically, arts organisation is usually defined as a non-profit organisation. It used be true, however, it is not enough to rely on governments, arts council, patrons, or donation. It is increasing the number of artists, and people are more likely to spend their time on relaxing, something giving pleasure, they don¡¦t mind to spend their money, time on non-material products. But what they are looking for, where they are going. The numbers visiting arts field, such as museums, galleries, theatres, performing arts exhibitions, are going down. More people are going out for entertaining themselves, but not in arts fields. Seriously, managers in arts organisation don¡¦t believe to find audiences¡¦ favourites. The Domus(Museums and Galleries Commission, 18) survey showed that just % of museum owned up to having a formal marketing policy. (Runyard, S. 1)

That is why we need to bring ¡¥marketing theories¡¦ to the arts field in either of cases

-arts organisation as a commercial organisation

-arts organisation to maximise the exposure of people to arts work.

�Ü What is an art marketing about?

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.

- American Marketing Association

According to Chartered Institute of Marketing¡¦s definition, ¡¥Marketing is the management process which is responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably¡¦

In arts organization, the concept of marketing is not the same as these definitions for the characters of arts fields. In fact, general marketing is more focused on pricing, promotion, satisfying customers to get more profit; arts organization is usually more considering at satisfying individual to let them come.

Katherine Khalife, publisher of MuseumMarketingTips.com and the Museum Marketing Tips e-newsletter, was attended in may, 000, at Pennsylvania heritage tourism summit, when Carnegie Museums president Ellsworth Brown opened a morning workshop with the provocative question, What is marketing? what she heard from several museum professionals in the room responding was, Its getting people to want what you have. (web.museumarketingtips.com/articles/marketing_what.html)

Also, many artists are needed strategic care to the arts organizations for concentrating more on their work. Not only for arts organisation, but artists also need organisation become more strategy.

As an individual artist, what marketing resources do you need?



wwww.Fure4arts.com

¡§What people want has a great deal to do with what they purchase - with their money, their time, their energy, or their attention. Whether youre selling a commercial product or a nonprofit service, unless it meets the desires of people, most of them wont buy it.

As consultant Will Phillips wrote in an excellent 16 article, Linking Objects with Audience, Historically, museums emphasized collecting and understanding objects and specimens, not audiences. The resultant strategy played on a field of dreams Collect it and they will come. But today, as Phillips notes, audience needs and values must become a primary focus if museums want to attract more visitors. The new mantra needs to be Know them and they will come

Developing a marketing mindset requires us to look at our audiences as customers, to see our museums through their eyes, and to adapt our facilities and programs to meet their needs and wants.

The marketing baiters continue by asserting that marketing¡¦s master is commercialism, the market force¡¦s profit. Marketers are not social workers. They exist to persuade in order to make ¡¥the best possible financial outcome¡¦ (Diggle K. 184).

What marketing means; looking outwards, not inwards, constant awareness of what is happening in your market place, asking, not telling customers what they want, coring about processes as well as products, and communicating all this through the organization.

Organisation

-marketing objective

-product; life cycle, costs, portfolio, position

Environment

Economic

Political

social

Market

Competitive pricing

segmentation

price

Customer

Demand/needs

Benefits

Value

Pricing policy

Source Adapted from T.J.Hannagan, Marketing in the public and non-profit sector, Macmillan press Ltd, 1

This figure represents that Pricing policies are influenced by four factors those under the control of the museum itself, those that operate in the market in which the museum operates, those influenced by users¡¦ needs, those determined by the marketing environment.

Admission fee;

As Diggle claims ¡¥charging for admission can actually help a museum achieve larger attendance as well as larger revenues without an ethical downside¡¦ (Diggle, K. 15)

UK museum association, which states

Above all, it is essential that policy in relation to admission charges is formed in such a way that it does not discourage people from viewing the collections or from using the museum. The Association¡¦s code on admission charges states that ¡¥central and local government have an overriding responsibility to maintain the tradition of free access¡K; and that if charges are levied the revenue must be reinvested in the museum. The code also maintain that the decision as to whether or not to charge should be left up to individual museums, but that free admission should be provided for the equivalent of at least one day a week, and there should be reduced rates on all other days for children, the elderly, the unemployed and disabled people. ( museum Association 11a1)



Marketing theory

4Ps product, price, place(determination), people(promotion)

These are basic components when we break down the whole concept. In arts organisation, production could be current exhibition, or play on showing, event. If there is entrance fee, they can compare the price between competitors.

Basically, it is analysis of each characters of the product, for example, when we compare two different kinds of beers, we can examine by price, logo, taste, colour, and the like. And then we can mark in each analysis, and then add up.

Position map

What we need to know is that how the products will differ from competitors and how it wants to come across to its target buyers.

Maybe we could offer an excellent product/with excellent service at a premium price and well advertise, or build a simple low-price product aimed at the more price-conscious market. However because there are limited budget, and technical problems, we need to find the best way. And we can see more easily though a product positioning map



high quality

low price





Low quality

It describes the position of four competitors currently selling to this market.

Differ in sales volume ( size of circle), b = average-quality product at an average price



Markets(customer groups)

Small customer medium Large

Show A

Show B xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Show C

This diagram is about Product/Market grid for Shows. It is easy to compare each show by customer groups.

�Ü Market research

Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and finding relevant to understanding an organisation¡¦s consumers, the environmental factors influencing the organisation, and ways to improve consumer satisfaction and organisational performance.

Market research can take the form of focus groups, surveys done with visitors at museums, mail and telephone surveys and panel studies (what the heck is that?).

MoMO (Museum Of Modern Oddities) gallery, run by artists which is( created, curate, and collected).was one which took creative ideas and has been successed. From -1 August 00, Zuercher Theatre Spektakel Festival in Zurich, Swaziland, it was small garden work, but they have produced something that people don¡¦t usually have, or even don¡¦t think about, but very nice crafts. Also they have shops which is commercial but in artistic way.

It is special case, but still a good example of gallery¡¦s marketing. http//www.fuel4arts.com/touring/case/uploads/CaseStudyMoMo.pdf

�Ü Audience development

Marketing is simply the strategic and systematic approach to audience development which meets the overall objectives of the museum and galleries¡¦ (Runyard, S. 1)

Audience development- what they do instead of coming arts performance? Their time schedules are contributed in leisure time doesn¡¦t mean that they are coming to see the performance or exhibition unless they know something about those works. People want to do something that they are good at, or they can share with others.

Arts fields compete for audiences against say-at¡Vhome behaviours; watching television, using the computer, reading a book, other leisure activities ;shopping, movies, sporting events, hiking, other cultural activities(concerts, festival), and other arts fields.

Building audiences by attracting new visitors, by relating existing audiences and encouraging them to become more active; and by providing exhibitions and other offerings of outstanding quality and appeal.

�Ü maximise the exposure of people to arts work

This purpose also needs to take marketing theories to increase number of audience. And also it has to maintain certain amount of subsidise each year. They don¡¦t have customers, but still they have to keep the numbers of audiences for financial reason.

In education term, people agree that to educate students/teachers are important in terms of audience development. It is good idea but what is the most effective way? I¡¦ve seen a programme about learning how to paint in a gallery. Because it was just opened and it needed to make people know their existence. It was for young kids, but that is why their parents should go with them. That was advertising while they were educating. Maybe when the kids are grow up, paintings or galleries will be more familiar for them rather than others who have not got these experience.

�Ü Example Marketing in a Museum

The strategic market planning process work in a museum organisation is in three stages. Firstly, setting up a planning system that analyzes environmental factors, organisational strengths and weaknesses, mission, objectives and goals and then determines strategies, secondly crafting an organisational design adapted to the chosen strategies and finally creating systems to monitor planning implementation and outcomes, specifically market information, planning and control. (Kotler, N. & Kotler, P; 1)

Information from museum staff can be able to satisfy visitors, such as the Doncaster Museum and Art Gallery in UK, they have taken the lead in training staff at all levels to be information and orientation providers.

Museum¡¦s offering; exhibitions, collections, lectures and events, merchandise in the gift shop, interior design, exterior architecture. And offer value-learning, recreation, sociability, and experiences. Try to expose their offering

There are the challenges that Museums, Heritage and Performing Arts organizations now have to face to remain healthy and competitive understanding new and emerging cultural needs and offering people diverse opportunities to spend their leisure time, working out strategies for audience retention and development, diversifying funding sources, attracting young people. The increasing complexity of the environment in which arts organizations operate, has a number of different implications such as the need to serve a variety of stakeholders and to fulfil multiple roles. And, of course, one should not forget the must for all arts organizations their institutional mission and the cultural identity they have developed over time.

Bibliography

Kotler, N.& Kotler, P., Museum strategy & Marketing designing, missions, building audiences, generating revenue and resources, 18, Jossey-Bass Publishers

Fiona Mclean, Marketing the museum, 17, Routledge

Hill, E., O¡¦Sullivan, C., Terry O¡¦Sullivan, Creative arts marketing, 15, Butterworth-Heinemann

Financial Times, edited Dickson, T., Mastering Management, 17, Pitman publishing

Kotler, P., Marketing Management; analysis, planning, implementation, and control, 8th ed. 14, Prentice-hall



Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J. Wong, V., Principles of Marketing, rd ed. 001, Prentice Hall

Runyard S.& Ylva French, Marketing & Public relations handbook,1, Altamira press

http//www.museummarketingtips.com/articles/marketing_what.html

http//www.audience-development.net/main.htm

http//www.artscouncil.org.uk/

http//www.artsandbusiness.org.uk/

http//www.a-m-a.co.uk/

http//www.artsmarketing.org/

http//www.fuel4arts.com/

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the lion king review

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“The Lion King” has tastefully been brought to stage in the theatrical recreation of the widely respected film. Although most of the audience could already mimic the lines and knew all the words to the songs, Julie Taymor (director) was able to make the musical a new and exhilarating experience. The archetype of the difficulties of growing up and self acceptance were reserved but the play did twist the plot ever so slightly to make it its own. A new side story concerning Scar and Nala arises, captivating songs are introduced and the male baboon Rafiki is now an all knowing female intellect. These minute yet noticeable modifications make the play captivating and worthwhile.



The acting in the musical seemed effortless and natural. The actors had obviously been well acquainted with their characters and felt comfortable in their roles. The characters of young Simba (Isaiah Grant) and Nala (Miranda De La Cruz) were well casted. Both actors demonstrated confidence and were tremendously joyful to watch. They brought an air of carelessness and merriment to the stage which was evident in their juvenile yet booming voices right down to their cub costumes. Although young Simba was so well casted I do not believe that the older Simba was portrayed as wonderfully. The older Simba played by Michael Blake did the part justice yet he did not seem to have that certain dominance that most of the other actors possessed. The antagonist, Scar, played by Richard Clarkin, was so well in character that audience members felt revulsion and dishonor when he strayed onstage. His raspy and distinguishing voice suited the character fabulously. Clarkin delivered his lines with grace which made his deviant personality come to life. Horace V. Rogers’ performance as Mufasa demanded attention. Rogers’ commanding gestures and arrogance added to the commanding character. Although Rogers’ interpretation of Mufasa was played well, Mufasa did not seem to be as important in the musical and he did in the movie. This is because he did not seem as loving and he didn’t seem like an extremely significant figure to young Simba. Pumbaa, played by Mark Terene and Timon, played by Bill Perry were both wonderfully characterized. The two seemed inseparable and came off as wonderfully charming. Terene and Perry’s delivery of lines were magnificent and because of this they received many laughs. Perry’s accent definitely added to the character and was greatly enjoyed. Tshidi Manye’s portrayal of Rafiki was by far the most captivating aspect of many scenes. Her booming voice projected clearly throughout the house and she managed to hold attention even in her mindless ramblings which were laugh out loud funny.

The most enthralling component of the musical “The Lion King” would have to be the costumes. The headpieces were fashioned so well that they became part of the actors’ bodies. The African prints of the costumes reminded audience members of the setting and brought a feeling tradition and folklore to the stage. There were several diverse animals that were portrayed in this musical and each required its own ingenious costume. The most eye- catching of all the costumes would have been the intricate giraffes and the immense elephant. The colourful costumes and vibrant lighting kept the stage lively and the music reserved your attention. Many of the songs were from the original movie written by Elton John and Tim Rice but there were also five new scores which were performed during the musical. “He Lives In You”, one of the additional pieces added to the show, was exceptional. The song was rhythmically interesting and it also had wonderful words that I recite to this day. The set was also well constructed. It was versatile and allowed many significant changes in the scenery. One of the most momentous scenes which greatly depended on the set was the stampede scene. This set was not only interesting to watch, it was also interesting to fathom how it was created so flawlessly. Although the entire musical was well developed there was one feature which stood out the most. This outstanding element was the choreography. There were tribal like dances, ballet inspired movements and many other captivating rhythmical arrangements. Each dance was appealing in its own way and were so well put together that they did not get tedious, like most other dances do. As audience members we must also take into account the intricate costumes and how difficult it must have been to choreograph certain scenes with the different species of animals and their different personalities.

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Overall, the musical “The Lion King” was admirably and skillfully put together. Not only were the children ecstatic at the end results but the adults also found the musical memorable. Like the movie, this play is entertaining enough to watch numerous times over.



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how to print

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Edward wansworth 4857654

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Edward Wadsworth (188-14)

Edward Wadsworth was born on the th October 188 in Clekheaton, Yorkshire, the son of a wealthy worsted spinning magnate. Studied engineering at Munich 106 but became more interested in painting, attending the Knirr School in his spare time. On returning to England went to Bradford School of Art, where he gained a scholarship to the Slade School. Studied at the Slade 108-1.

Exhibited in the Friday Club at the Alpine Club Gallery, February 11 and January-February 11. Included in the last month (January 11) of the Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition. Joined the Omega Workshop summer 11 and exhibited in the July 11 Allied Artists Association Salon. Left the Omega with the Lewis and the other rebels October 11, and contributed to the Post-Impressionist and Futurist Exhibition the same month. Included in the Cubist Room section of the Camden Town Group and Others exhibition at Brighton, December 11-January 114, and exhibited as a founder-member in the March 114 London Group show. Joined the Rebel Art Centre, spring 114, and participated in the Whitechapel Art Gallerys Twentieth Century Art Exhibition, May-June 114. Contributed illustrations and translations from Kandinskys Uber das Geistige in Der Kunst to BLAST No.1, summer 114, and signed its manifesto. Included in the July 114 Allied Artists Association Salon, and in the March 115 London Group exhibition. Contributed as a member to the June 115 Vorticists Exhibition, and reproduced his work in BLAST No., July 115.

Served in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve until invalided out 117.

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Included in the January 117 New York Vorticist Exhibition, and then employed designing dazzle camouflage for ships in Bristol and Liverpool. Painted large picture for the Canadian War Memorials Fund, and held a one-man show at the Adelphi Gallery, March 11. Exhibited in Group X at the Mansard Gallery, March-April 10, and in later life pursued a more representational style, apart from a period in the 10s when associated with Unit One. Died 1 June 14 in



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Acting Style of The Three Sisters

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THE THREE SISTERS….Acting Style and Then Some…

The original Moscow Art Theatre’s presentation of The Three Sisters may not have won critical praise or even mass spectator appeal, but Stanislavsky’s production of the Chekhovian play in 101 has since changed the way actors live through their characters. Chekhov despised the idea of anything false onstage.

“The immense majority of people are nervous, you know the greater number suffer, and a small proportion feel acute pain; but where- in streets and in houses- do you see people tearing about, leaping up and clutching at their heads? Suffering ought to be expressed as it is expressed in life- that is, not by the arms and legs, but by the tone and expression; not by gesticulation, but by grace. Subtle emotions of the soul in educated people must be subtly expressed in an external way. You will say - stage conditions. No conditions allow falsity.” -(Chekhov, 17)

He believed in showing the details and subtleties of one’s character and his writing reflected this. As a result of his interpretation of Chekhov’s work, Stanislavsky’s The Three Sisters became markedly modern for its time. Moreover, the reality represented on stage was intended to resemble as closely as possible the usual, everyday material environment, mannerisms, attitudes, values and aspirations shared by the majority of the audience the Russian intelligentsia, to which the production’s authors and performers also belonged. Stanislavsky’s main intent was to eliminate the existential distance between the people on stage and the people in the audience. The ‘fourth wall’ by this token became visually transparent turning their backs to the spectators, actors signaled the absence of distance between the audience and the stage, the equivalence of acting and life, (Rudnitskii, 10-105).

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Although Chekhov objected to the idea of falsified acting as Stanislavsky did, he did not always agree with Stanislavsky’s methods. The two men’s conflicting views of Chekhov’s writing has been constantly recognized by those studying theatre history as their main source of discord. Chekhov developed his art in a time period when playwrights still had much say in how a performance was constructed, cast, and executed, however, Chekhov never had ultimate control, considering he spent most of his final years in Yalta, while the MAT performed his plays in metropolitan Moscow, striking a real life chord similar to the literary theme constantly employed by Chekhov the desire to be in the city. What Chekhov’s work became most known for, above all, was his ability to create characters who lived on stage and spoke more profoundly through their subtext than their actual dialogue. Stanislavsky increased the intensity of this subtext with underlying motivations and affective memories. For example, in the scene between Vershinin and Masha during the second act, Vershinin is declaring his love for her when she moves to a different part of the stage and states “It’s lighter here” meaning to say “I like you but lighten your intense pursuit.” Thus, characters in The Three Sisters were not simply talking heads spelling out their motives for the audience, but rather complex people with real problems to hide amidst their everyday lives.



One might assume that since Chekhov often disapproved of Stanislavsky’s ways of running a theatre and his interpretations of his plays, he would similarly disapprove of his acting skill. Although, this has never been proven. Chekhov once said, “The public, however stupid, is generally more clever, more sincere and sympathetic than K. and the actors- and these latter think they are the brighter reciprocal misunderstandings,” (Chekhov, 14). However, correct interpretations or not, he knew there was some talent swimming about at the MAT and it was unfortunately never found in the acting. In the late 1th century actor-centered theatrical system the ‘outstanding actors’ were judged in terms of individual performance and therefore mostly compared to their less outstanding colleagues. This should not detract from the revolutionary acting concepts such as the fourth wall, the objective, and the idea of using subtext that can all be traced back to Anton Chekhov and his work with Constantin Stanislavsky on The Three Sisters.

K is assumed to represent Konstantin

Chekhov, Anton. The Personal Papers of Anton Chekhov. Trans. S.S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf. New York Lear Publishers, Inc., 148.

Rudnitskii, K.L.. Russkoe rezhisserskoe iskusstvo. (188-107 The Art of Russian Directors. 188-107). Moscow Nauka, 18.

Stanislavski, Constantin. An Actor Prepares. Trans. Elizabeth Reynolds Hapgood. New York Theatre Arts, Inc., 16.

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Cancer Experience

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It is my own philosophy that in everyone’s lifetime, there is a certain event that takes place which paves the way for two different paths of either achievement or failure. It can strike at any given moment and has no sympathy for age or experience. My own experience was defined by a diagnosis of testicular cancer at the youthful age of thirteen, at a time when most my age were creating fond memories to be reminisced upon at a later point in life.

Ironically humorous, my sickness was initiated upon watching “The Tom Green Show.” On this particular episode, the host himself had just gone into remission for testicular cancer and had demonstrated methods of self-checking one’s own body for signs of disease. Still in the “mindset” as I like to call it, of a thirteen year-old whose most abundant concern was where I would be going that night, I initially paid little attention to the distraction on the television screen. Thinking about it now, the afternoon plays in my mind like the beginning of a movie the unknowing adolescent watching TV foreshadows the later, darker side of the plot in which sickness will overtake all. These were the last days of my true youth, the thirteen years which others can call eighteen, and the ones which would cry me to sleep later nights thinking about how it was before I had contracted my illness.

Within a time span of two or three weeks after witnessing the television program, I preceded to take the shower which would periodically replay in my mind for the remainder of my entire life. I stripped my clothes to the floor, making sure to let the water run a minute to warm up before I entered the enclosed glass tower. Strapping my towel to the sliding door, I stepped into the next year of my life just as I would any other previous day. I went through the motions shampoo, conditioner, and then the concluding stage of cleansing with a bar of soap. Stomach, arms, legs; it was all systematic until I felt “the bump”. The irony of the bump is how passive and trivial something as minor as a slight inflammation seems in context. Yet, that slight bump sent a wave of chills up my spine colder than any winter breeze nature could muster. These were the chills that God creates, specifically for moments in life when you know your life is about to stray off the assumed path of normality.

Embarrassment would be my enemy in the days that followed. It took almost five days of checking, rechecking and researching on the internet before I conjured up the will to tell my mother I thought I needed to go see a doctor regarding a strange formation on my testicle. To this day, I pride myself in having the courage to inform my parents of something so otherwise personal. My parents’ reactions were as I thought they would be extremely concerned, if not excessive as I had thought at the time. That very night my father scheduled an appointment with Dr. Carl Limbaugh, a name that would come up quite often over the course of the following year. That Thursday when I went for my checkup I was examined by Dr. Limbaugh, and was informed about a half hour later that I was indeed a probable candidate for testicular cancer. In the doctor’s office I remember the tears streaming down my mother’s cheek and my father sitting in the chair staring blankly at the carpet. I, however, never shed a tear; shocked to a point few ever attain, I simply sat and embodied my thoughts, as far away from the hell that I knew had just opened up before me as humanly possible.

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After my condition was officially confirmed two weeks later by lab tests, the unique experience of “guinea pig treatment” had begun. It started with the pills green, yellow, red, pink - I could have crafted a medical mosaic more colorful than Michelangelo could have ever imagined. Dizziness, fatigue, vomiting and migraines became an everyday ritual, as expected and as commonplace to my schedule as television had been the year before. Breakfast, lunch and dinner no longer existed, as I was forced to plan meals around my medicines. I soon found that the fear of death is not at all what makes insomniacs out of cancer patients, but the sheer unrest of capsule after capsule and their effects.

That December, four days before Christmas, gave birth to the second phase of my treatment. The time had finally come to undergo surgery to attempt to remove the cancer from my body, a procedure for which Dr. Limbaugh was known for his successes. One particularly beneficial perk to the procedure was the cessation of pill consumption for three days prior to the 1st. Otherwise, preparation was minimal and soon enough the day had arrived. Anaesthesia was admitted, and the next conscious memory I have was waking up in the hospital bed late that night. My mother was sitting in the chair next to the bed while my father was down the hallway at the snack machine. The expression on her face when I opened my eyes had the most reassuring effect on me, with a gaze that seeped into my soul and whispered to the depths that it had all ended. I was happy, excited at the thought that at that moment my body could have very well been free of cancer and my return to a life of simplicity and normality eagerly near. I left the hospital the day after Christmas, with a newfound confidence I had not felt since the day before I had been diagnosed. Soon, I echoed in my mind, this nightmare, this total hell of an existence, would all disappear. The time was approaching where I could find myself out living once again.

The rate of success after surgery for testicular cancer patients is 5 %. Consequently, fate preferred the number 48 in my case. Eight weeks after surgery, my parents and I were informed the cancer had spread to my other testicle, and that it was unlikely I would ever be able to bare children of my own blood. In a state of devastation and uncomprehendable depression, I had returned to my nightmare, realizing I had never awoken at all; I had simply fell dormant to dreaming. I was now faced with a new dilemma, a decision that would either shape the rest of my life or spell out my death - chemotherapy or a second attempt at surgery, in which Dr. Limbaugh did not recommend the latter. After a week of consulting other physicians and discussing amongst our family, a date was scheduled to commence with round one chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy, by its very definition, is an experience impossible to describe in words. I was left with a body absent of hair from head to toe. I was once again forced to receive my education via a private tutor, struggling to even make it through my daily lessons. At the lowest point of treatment, I simply closed my textbook, wondering the meaning of a knowledge home to eyes that would not even see another summer. Summoning every last ounce of strength I possessed, I got through each day with the sheer hope that one day I could put everything and all behind me and start anew with my so-called life. After two and a half months of subjecting my body to harsh poisons and chemicals - two and a half months of pure human survival in the most unnatural of conditions - I, John Haley Gowdy, lived to call that day my own. On March the 16th, 1, it was all over with the six ironically simple words that I had been living to hear for the past six months of my existence. That heavenly day in the doctor’s office that had before had been so closely associated with hell, Dr. Limbaugh announced, to my now weathered expectations, that I -

I, who had that very year been to the pits of hell and back again -

had been cured of cancer, and could now be officially medically considered in remission phase. In the back of my mind as well as off the tip of my tongue, I could manage only two words, as if I had been stranded in a desert for a year and had just now discovered water. “Thank God” I rasped. “Thank God, Thank God, Thank God.”

The strength and will which defined my being for six long months ring true to my personality to this day. The experience of surviving cancer has changed my life to the point that I now do not even consider myself living prior to becoming ill. I even find myself pitying others who fail to realize the potential and beauty of a human life, as I have come to realize thrives. The simplest things that I had found so bothersome before - waking up for school on time; doing homework; even attending church on a weekly basis - have now become priorities in which I pride myself and even manage to find great pleasure. Living through cancer has opened up my eyes to recognize my own responsibility to take each day for what it truly is, the most godly of blessings. Life, as most unfortunately do not realize until much later years, is simply too short a time to waste not living. To not attempt my best on a daily basis is a waste of that day, one in which I very well may have found myself six feet under rather than seven feet ahead. As I despise what cancer had put me through, physically and emotionally, it serves me now as a bittersweet stimulus. It has undoubtedly changed my life for the better and has led me to hold the deepest respect for the most otherwise trivial of things. As only a survivor of such an illness could understand, I almost wish my experience on the world. For if it were to be granted, the world for find itself in a more jubilant existence, one in which simply the sun shining on its back is reason enough to sit back and put on a smile.

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Alexander Calder

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Alexander Stirling “Sandy” Calder was one of the most innovative and original American artists of the twentieth century. Calder was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother, Nanette Lederer, was a painter and his father, Alexander “Stirling” Calder, and grandfather, Alexander Milne Calder, were noted sculptors. Young Alexander seemed to break the family tradition of studying art by enrolling at the Stephens Institute of Technology in New Jersey to major in engineering. But after graduating from college and holding a succession of jobs, Calder eventually returned to New York to study art (Nelson 001).

Calder attended classed at the Art Students League in New York from 1 to 16, supporting himself by working as an illustrator. Between 16 and 10, Calder went to Paris to develop his intricately assembled Cirque Calder, a work of performance art employing small-scale circus figures he sculpted from wire, wood, clothe, and other materials. Calder’s circus helped to establish him in avant-garde circles. At the same time, Calder sculpted three-dimensional figurative works using continuous lengths of wire, which he described as “line drawings in space”(Marter 11). His wire sculptures became another outlet for the artist’s explorations in space. One of his earliest wire sculptures was a portrait of Josephine Baker, the first of five he ultimately made of the dance (Marter 11). Many of these wire sculptures, such as his initial portrait of Baker, were affixed to bases. A number of later wire portraits, such as Aztec Josephine Baker, were made to hang from string or wire, so that their elements could dangle and move at the mercy of the wind. Indeed, such works would seem to be conceptual prototypes of Calder’s later mobiles.

In the early 10’s, Calder’s work took a radical turn. Association with Mondrain and other innovative artists working at the time influenced Calder to begin painting and constructing sculptures in an abstract manner (Nelson 001). Calder began to construct abstract kinetic sculptures. Two Spheres Within a Sphere, for example, uses a small wire crank, with sets in motion to two wooden balls within the sphere. Likewise, Pantograph features a small motor that whisks red and black disks back and forth through the air.

During a visit to Calder’s studio, fellow artist, Marcel Duchamp became particularly fascinated by one of Calder’s motor-driven sculptures. Duchamp suggested the term “mobile” to describe his work (Nelson 001). In 1, Duchamp opened an exhibition featuring thirty-one of Calder’s mobiles (Marter 11).

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Calder took this concept one step further by building large-scale mobiles for the outdoors, allowing his works to operate at the hands of weather’s fate. Steel Fish, for example, involves an intricate system of weights and balances, and depends on the strength of the wind to arrange or rearrange its composition. This particular work is an early example of the types of outdoor sculptures Calder would later build during the final years of his career.

By the late 10s, Calder had established himself and his work as a major force in twentieth-century art. As well as being the inventor of wire sculpture and the mobile, he was one of the first modern artists to create monumental work for public spaces. In a career that stretched to his death in 176, Calder became one of the best-loved and widely appreciated American artists of all time.



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amazon.com

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Recommendations

Books, music and DVD/Video accounted for 48% of 00 revenues for Amazon.com. As a result, we suggest that Amazon concentrate its business on this segment alone. It has the most expertise in this particular field(s) and thus is the most profitable for them. But we also suggest that Amazon drastically reduce its inventory of “physical” inventory in order to cut warehouse costs and the number of employees needed in the warehouse. A way to do this is to start selling e-books, books that can be downloaded onto your computer, charge a flat per song fee to download songs, and also charge a fee to download movies to your computer. By doing so, Amazon will stay within its market niche while inventory for these items will be almost non-existent.

Amazon should also move into a customer-to-customer auction forum, much like Ebay. By do this they can be more competitive with Ebay and still not have much inventory on hand, thus reducing costs.

We believe that their (Amazon) strategic alliances should continue to grow as the Business-to-Customer market increases, as will the Business-to-Business market. With all three of these suggestions, Amazons cost of changeover is minimal compared to keeping their traditional warehouse inventory method.

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Alternatives

Possible alternatives for Amazon include recruiting a new management team, one that focuses on making a profit rather than enlarging its market share. Capturing market share is indeed vital for any business to flourish, but if the business does not generate a profit it could end up bankrupt.

Another possible alternative is to phase out some of Amazons least profitable venues, such as appliance sales. By doing so they could sell off their least profitable sector and cut their losses now rather than incurring large amounts of debt by keeping large amounts of inventory and freeing up extra space for more profitable items.

(FEEL FREE TO ADD ANY MORE SUGGESTIONS AND/OR ALTERNATIVES)



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Economic Shift

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The economy appears to be making a shift for the better. In the past few years, unemployment numbers have increased at shocking rates but recent occurrences say otherwise. Back to school shopping and the ‘rallying stock market’ are both indicators ‘that the economy is set to motor into 004’ as stated in the Business Week article. With a heavy demand by consumers steadily increasing, businesses will be forced to supply a larger amount of workers. Managers will be forced to hang “Help Wanted” signs. But this change isn’t expected to occur overnight.

Companies are ‘still wringing [out] every bit of productivity they can get out of their existing workers.’ Some companies are hesitant and don’t want to hire new employees as of yet. While other companies are eager to see what a new staff can bring into their companies. New employees will bring different perspectives, techniques and new knowledge. Despite eagerness of new blood in companies, others will continue to downsize. Such companies include manufacturing, where the constant goal to be met is increasing profits at all costs.

As of the end of 001, output has steadily increased at a rate of .6% annually. By the year’s endings and the beginning of 004, output is expected to reach 4% to 5%. And as the holidays arrive, and the Friday after Thanksgiving nears (otherwise known as Black Friday in the retail business), managers must take into heavy consideration hiring new hands.

Management will be responsible for finding new employees that will best fit their companies. Managers will have to interview possible candidates. As well as train those selected for the position and make sure their new associates are aware of the rules of the workplace. Hiring new staff requires time and plenty of work in planning and organization on the manager’s part.

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Management strives for efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Managers must be aware of their resources and must not spread them too thin (efficiency). With an increase in demand by consumers, management must find more resources to fit the consumer’s needs, thus hire more employees. Companies realize that by hiring new employees could cut into their possible profits but must be willing to take the risk because it is the right thing to do (effectiveness). They are also taking the risk of succeeding.

Jobs are opening and a ‘job bonanza’ is expected to occur. ‘All the important pieces -- including simulative government policy and accelerating demand -- are finally in place to turn this jobless recovery into an upturn that creates more paychecks than pink slips.’

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